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피터브뤼겔 BRUEGEL, Pieter the Elder
(b. ca. 1525, Breughel, d. 1569, Bruxelles)

브뤼겔이 살았던 16세기는 르네상스 황금기로,


Pieter Bruegel (about 1525-69), usually known as Pieter Bruegel the Elder to distinguish him from his elder son, was the first in a family of Flemish painters. He spelled his name Brueghel until 1559, and his sons retained the "h" in the spelling of their names.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, generally considered the greatest Flemish painter of the 16th century, is by far the most important member of the family. He was probably born in Breda in the Duchy of Brabant, now in The Netherlands. Accepted as a master in the Antwerp painters' guild in 1551, he was apprenticed to Coecke van Aelst, a leading Antwerp artist, sculptor, architect, and designer of tapestry and stained glass. Bruegel traveled to Italy in 1551 or 1552, completing a number of paintings, mostly landscapes, there. Returning home in 1553, he settled in Antwerp but ten years later moved permanently to Brussels. He married van Aelst's daughter, Mayken, in 1563. His association with the van Aelst family drew Bruegel to the artistic traditions of the Mechelen (now Malines) region in which allegorical and peasant themes run strongly. His paintings, including his landscapes and scenes of peasant life, stress the absurd and vulgar, yet are full of zest and fine detail. They also expose human weaknesses and follies. He was sometimes called the "peasant Bruegel" from such works as Peasant Wedding Feast (1567).

He developed an original style that uniformly holds narrative, or story-telling, meaning. In subject matter he ranged widely, from conventional Biblical scenes and parables of Christ to such mythological portrayals as Landscape with the Fall of Icarus; religious allegories in the style of Hieronymus Bosch; and social satires. But it was in nature that he found his greatest inspiration. His mountain landscapes have few parallels in European art. Popular in his own day, his works have remained consistently popular. Bruegel died in Brussels between Sept. 5 and 9, 1569.

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Netherlandish Proverbs
1559 (220 Kb); Oil on oak panel, 117 x 163 cm; Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Gemaldegalerie, Berlin

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Peasant wedding
c. 1568 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 114 x 164 cm (45 x 64 1/2 in); Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

He developed an original style that uniformly holds narrative, or story-telling, meaning. In subject matter he ranged widely, from conventional Biblical scenes and parables of Christ to such mythological portrayals as Landscape with the Fall of Icarus; religious allegories in the style of Hieronymus Bosch; and social satires. But it was in nature that he found his greatest inspiration. His mountain landscapes have few parallels in European art. Popular in his own day, his works have remained consistently popular. Bruegel died in Brussels between Sept. 5 and 9, 1569.

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The Tower of Babel
1563 (200 Kb); Oil on oak panel, 114 x 155 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna

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The "Little" Tower of Babel
c. 1563 (180 Kb); Oil on panel, 60 x 74.5 cm; Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam


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The Beggars
1568 (90 Kb); Wood; Louvre

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The Harvesters
1565 (180 Kb); Oil on wood, 118.1 x 160.7 cm (46 1/2 x 63 1/4 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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The Hunters in the Snow
1565 (220 Kb); Oil on panel, 117 x 162 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna

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Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
c. 1558 (180 Kb); Oil on canvas, mounted on wood, 73.5 x 112 cm; Musees royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels
"이카로스의 추락" 농부는 밭을 갈고, 양치기 소년은 하늘을 보고,  낚시꾼은 났시대를 던지고 있다.  풍경화인듯한데,   오른쪽 하단에 허우적거리는 사람이 이카로스. 제목과 달리 이카로스가 하늘에서 떨러져 추락했는데 소리도 들리지 않고 빠져있는 사람도 본 체 만 체, 사람들의 관심 밖,
'사람이 죽어도 쟁기질은 쉴 수 없다'는 네덜란드의 속담이 들어있는 우의화.

하늘을 날고 싶어하는 인간의 욕망과 미지의 세계에 대한 동경의 대상인
'이카로스의 날개'  이카로스는 고대신화에 등장하는 인물.
 
이카로스의 아버지 다이달로스는 아테네의 유명한 장인.  다이달로스는  그의 아들에게 날개를 고안해서  탈출계획을 세운다. '너무 높이 날면 밀랍이 녹고 낮게 날면 바다의 물기로 날개가 무거워 지니 하늘과 바다의 중간으로만 날아라' 주의를 주나,  아차 하는 순간 너무 높게 날아 밀랍이 녹아 바다에 추락한다는 이야기. '이카로스의 추락'은 과욕과 오만이 부른 추락.
이카로스의 까만 몸뚱이 속에 붉은 색의 심장이 조그맣게 보입니다. 노란 별빛이 이카로스의
최후를 바라본다.


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Children's Games
1559-60
Oil on wood, 118 x 161 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

the painting is referred to as the "encyclopaedia of Flemish children's games". It represents about 84 games some of them are practiced until present days. There is also an assumption that the painting is part of a four-piece cycle representing the four seasons.
In addition to the games in the left part of the background a typical Flemish landscape, while on the right a street with excellent perspective can be seen.

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Dulle Griet (
mad-meg)  c. 1562
Oil on wood, 117,4 x 162 cm
Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp

This painting was mentioned by Carel van Mander in 1604 in his 'Schilderboeck'. He described the principal character of the painting as 'a Mad Meg pillaging at the mouth of Hell / seemingly perplexed / and cruelly and strangely attired', an evil and fearsome woman or witch. Van Mander remained vague about the actual significance of the painting. Perhaps it had already been forgotten by his time. We can be certain, however, that Bruegel gave the work a hidden allegorical or religious meaning, albeit one that remains a mystery. A great many experts have devoted their energies to solving the problem, but none has ever succeeded entirely in explaining the painting. Most of them focus on the possible symbolism of the large woman in the foreground, with her suit of armor, sword, cutlery and money-box. She has been variously interpreted as a symbol of heresy or violence, the personification of hum,an evil and an allegory of instability.

Recently it was proposed that Meg symbolizes Madness, a vice taken in the 16th century to include insanity, rage, gluttony, lust, avarice and ambition, and that the giant figure in the centre of the painting is an allegory of Folly. The additional scenes surrounding the two figures illustrate the causes and repercussions of these two human failings. It was concluded that Bruegel's allegory was intended as an attack on both human nature and the political and religious situation in 16th-century Antwerp.

We could fill a book with suggested interpretations of Mad Meg and it is highly doubtful whether it would bring the viewer any closer to the true meaning of the painting. Nevertheless, the work never fails to fascinate, even without specialist knowledge. No one can fail to appreciate its apocalyptic vision. For that reason, it has also been plausibly interpreted as the Breaking of the Seventh Seal, as recounted in the Book of Revelations. Mad Meg is, indeed, reminiscent of the book of the Apocalypse.

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Hans Holbein the Younger
(1497/8 - 1543)

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543). Born in Augsburg, Bavaria, Hans received his first lessons in art from his father. In 1515 the younger Holbein went to Basel, Switzerland, with his brother, Ambrosius. Among the many scholars living in Basel at that time was the famous Dutch humanist Erasmus, who befriended the young artist and asked him to illustrate his satire, Encomium Moriae (The Praise of Folly). Holbein also illustrated other books, including Martin Luther's German translation of the Bible. In addition he painted pictures and portraits and, like his father, designed stained-glass windows. He also created designs for a series of 41 woodcuts called The Dance of Death.

About 1525 the factional strife that accompanied the Reformation made Basel a difficult place for an artist to work. In 1526 Holbein, carrying a letter of introduction from Erasmus to the English statesman and author Sir Thomas More, set out for London. He met with a favorable reception in England and stayed there for two years. In 1528 he returned to Basel, where he painted portraits and murals for the town hall. In 1532 he left his wife and children there and traveled once again to London.

In England, where he became court painter to Henry VIII, Holbein was known chiefly as a painter of portraits. His services were much in demand. The more than 100 miniature and full-size portraits he completed at Henry's court provide a remarkable document of that colorful period. An old account of his services at court relates that he painted the portrait of the king, "life size, so well that everyone who looks is astonished, since it seems to live as if it moved its head and limbs." In spite of their richness of detail, Holbein's portraits provide remarkably little insight into the personality and character of the people he painted.

Holbein also found time to perform numerous services for Henry. He designed the king's state robes and made drawings that were the basis of all kinds of items used by the royal household, from buttons to bridles to bookbindings. In 1539, when Henry was thinking of marrying Anne of Cleves, he sent Holbein to paint her portrait. In 1543 Holbein was in London working on another portrait of the king when he died, a victim of the plague.

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The Virgin and Child with the family of Burgomaster Meyer
1528 (120 Kb); Altar-painting; oil on wood, 146.5 x 102 cm (57 5/8 x 40 1/8 in); Schlossmuseum, Darmstadt

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 Sir Brian Tuke
c. 1527 (130 Kb); Oil on wood, 49 x 39 cm (19 3/8 x 15 1/4 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington

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Georg Gisze, a German merchant in London
1532 (200 Kb); Oil on wood, 96.3 x 85.7 cm (38 x 33 3/4 in); Gemaldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin

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Sir Richard Southwell
1536 (140 Kb); Oil on wood, 47.5 x 38 cm (18 x 15 in); Uffizi, Florence

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Portrait of Lady Elyot. 1532-3. Chalk, pen and brush on paper. Royal Collection, Windsor, UK.

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Portrait of Sir Thomas Elyot. 1532-3. Chalk, pen and brush on paper. Royal Collection, Windsor, UK

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The Ambassadors. 1533. Oil on wood. National Gallery, London, UK.
"대사들" 이 작품 역시 카메라 옵스큐라 이용.
대사들의 발 밑에 보이는 죽 늘려진 해골의 모양을 보면 알 수 있다.
영국 주재 프랑스대사/ 프랑스인 주교

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Portrait of Edward, Prince of Wales. 1539. Oil on wood. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

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Portrait of Henry VIII. 1540. Oil on panel. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome, Italy.
헨리 8세 와  앤 볼린 "1000일의 앤"
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  1. @artnstory art holic 2009.10.22 01:31 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    르네상스 부터
    이태리 르네상스 작가들은 초상화의 배경에 자연을 넣었다면,
    북유럽 르네상스 작가들은 초상화의 배경에 그들의 신분을 알릴수 있는 의상, 상징적인 소품, 글씨들이 보여진다.

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Spring. 1573. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France.

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Summer. 1573. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France.

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Autumn. 1573. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France

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Winter. 1573. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France.


Giuseppe Arcimboldo at Artprice. To look at auction records, find Arcimboldo's works in upcoming auctions, check price levels and indexes for his works, read his biography and view his signature, access the Artprice database.

            Although Giuseppe Arcimboldo was extremely famous during his lifetime, he was soon forgotten after his death. We do not know why people ever lost interest in his art. Perhaps he was misunderstood by the generations that followed. The interest to his abstruse and fantastic pictures, of which we only have a very few originals, nowadays, revived only at the end of the 19th century. Apart from the fantastic pictures, he probably painted quite a few more traditional ones. But many of these, too, seem to have disappeared.
            Giuseppe Arcimboldo was born into the family of a painter for the Milan Cathedral in 1527. The other variants of the name: Josephus, Joseph or Josepho Arcimboldi or Arcimboldus. It is uncertain which version is the correct one, because the painter used all these variants to sign his works. Many art historians agreed to use the variant of Giuseppe Arcimboldo.
             In 1549, at the age of 22, Giuseppe Arcimboldo made his debut as an artist. The records of the Milan Cathedral tell us that, together with his father, he was paid for designing several stained glass windows. He went on to work for the Milan Cathedral after his father’s death, until 1558. During this period he designed stained glass windows for the Milan Cathedral and several gobelin tapestries for the Como Cathedral.
            In 1562, Giuseppe Arcimboldo became a court painter of Emperor Ferdinand I (Habsburg) and left for Vienna, then moved to Prague. During the 2 years, when  Arcimboldo served Ferdinand I, he painted several portraits of the Imperial family as well as the first series of his Four Seasons. The artistic concept of these pictures of 1563 was unique and laid the foundation of Arcimboldo’s success as a painter. The documents of the time bear witness to the fact that monarchs and his contemporaries in general were quite enthusiastic about his art.
            When Ferdinand I died, in 1564, and was succeeded by Emperor Maximilian II (1527-1576), Arcimboldo continued as his court artist. There is little doubt that a large number of pictures were painted between 1564 and 1576, but only very few of them are known to us: Water and Fire (1566), The Lawyer (1566), The Cook (1570) another series of the Four Seasons in 1572, two series of Four Seasons in 1573, including Spring (1573), Summer (1573), Autumn (1573), Winter (1573). In 1575 Arcimboldo made several paintings for the private chambers of the Emperor. We do not know of any other works. But apart from painting, Arcimboldo also had other duties at the Imperial court. As he was a man of many talents he also served the Emperor as an architect, stage designer, engineer, water engineer and art specialist. Because of his extensive knowledge he was able to exert his influence on Maximilian II.
            Like his 2 predecessors, Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612) also took Arcimboldo into his service. The eleven years, which the artist spent with Rudolph II, were probably the peak of his career. The Emperor was extremely fond of Arcimboldo and showed great appreciation for him. All we know about Arcimboldo’s activities as an artist at the Imperial court is that  he painted The Four Seasons twice in 1577, that he dedicated a red leather folio containing 150 pen-and-ink drawings to the Emperor in 1585, and that he organized a number of festive processions and tournaments in the same year. We have no knowledge of any further pictures, which he might have painted, at the court in Prague after 1585.
            In 1587, after 11 years of service and a number of urgent requests, Arcimboldo finally received permission from Rudolph II to return to his native Milan. And so he went back in the same year, but honored the Emperor’s request to continue working for him even, though he was no longer in his service. In 1591 he painted two of his most famous pictures, Flora (c.1591) and Vertumnus (1590-1591), which he sent to Prague. Vertumnus was particularly appreciated by everyone, especially by Rudolph himself. It is a head-and-shoulder portrait of the Emperor, showing him in the form of Vertumnus, the ancient Roman god of vegetation and transformation. Rudolph consists entirely of magnificent fruits, flowers and vegetables. Delighted with these paintings, Rudolph II  awarded Arcimboldo one of his highest orders in 1592. Next year on 11 July 1593 the painter died.
 

Bibliography:
Arcimboldo by Federico Zeri. NDE Publishing, 2001.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo 1527-1593 (Basic Art Series) by Giuseppe Arcimboldi, Werner Kriegeskorte. TASCHEN America Llc, 1994.
The Portrait of Eccentricity: Arcimboldo and the Mannerist Grotesque by Giancarlo Maiorino. Pennsylvania State Univ Pr , 1991.
Hello, Fruit Face!: The Paintings of Guiseppe Arcimboldo (Adventures in Art) by Claudia Strand. Prestel, 1999.

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Giuseppe Arcimboldo. Self-Portrait. c.1575. Blue pen-and-wash drawing. Narodni Gallery, Prague, Chechia.



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Air. Oil on canvas. Private collection, Basle, Switzerland.

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Fire. 1566. Oil on wood. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.

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Earth. c.1570. Oil on wood. Private collection, Vienna, Austria.

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Water. 1566. Oil on wood. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.

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The Librarian. c.1566. Oil on canvas. Skoklosters Slott, Balsta, Sweden.

Vertumnus.
1590-1591. Oil on wood. Skoklosters Slott, Balsta, Sweden
루돌프2세의 초상. 예술가를 후원하여 프라하를 문화도시로 만든 군주. 이 독특한 초상화를 보고 슬기로운 군주덕에 만물이 번성하고 나라가 풍요롭다는 의미로 해석. 

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Flora. c.1591. Oil on wood. Private collection, Paris, France

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The Cook, a visual pun which can be turned upside down. c.1570. Oil on canvas. Private collection, Stokholm, Sweden.


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The Vegetable Gardener, a visual pun which can be turned upside down. c.1590. Oil on wood. Museo Civico Ala Ponzone, Cremona, Italy.

 

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  1. 티비다시보기 2020.08.31 15:30 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    잘 보고 갑니다...

Timeline: The High Renaissance

라파엘로는 우르비노의 궁정화가였던  아버지의 도움으로 성격이 온화하고 감성이 풍부한 천재화가가 되었다.

Italian in full RAFFAELLO SANZIO (b. April 6, 1483, Urbino, Duchy of Urbino [Italy]--d. April 6, 1520, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.

While we may term other works paintings, those of Raphael are living things; the flesh palpitates, the breath comes and goes, every organ lives, life pulsates everywhere.
-- Vasari, Lives of the Artists


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Madonna dell Granduca c. 1505 (110 Kb); Oil on wood, 84 x 55 cm (33 x 21 1/2 in); Palazzo Pitti, Florence
<대공의 성모> 르네상스의 아름다움을 가장 완벽하게 표현했다는 찬사를 받은 작품.
성모마리아와 아기예수그리스도.
비잔틴 초기 기독교 미술에 보여지던 icon이 르네상스에서도 계속 나타는 주제이다.
서기 5세기에 마리아는 신을 낳은 자, 예수의 어머니라는 뜻의 테오토코스 라고 불린다.


Raphael's greatest paintings seem so effortless that one does not usually connect them with the idea of hard and relentless work. To many he is simply the painter of sweet Madonnas which have become so well known as hardly to be appreciated as paintings any more. For Raphael's vision of the Holy Virgin has been adopted by subsequent generations in the same way as Michelangelo's conception of God the Father We see cheap reproductions of these works in humble dwellings, and we are apt to conclude that paintings with such a general appeal must surely be a little 'obvious'. In fact, their apparent simplicity is the fruit of deep thought, careful planning and immense artistic wisdom. A painting like Raphael's Madonna dell Granduca, is truly 'classical' in the sense that it has served countless generations as a standard of perfection in the same way as the works of Pheidias and Praxiteles. It needs no explanation. In this respect it is indeed 'obvious'. But, if we compare it with the countless representations of the same theme which preceded it, we feel that they have all been groping for the very simplicity that Raphael has attained. We can see what Raphael did owe to the calm beauty of Perugino's types, but what a difference there is between the rather empty regularity of the master and the fullness of life in the pupil! The way the Virgin's face is modeled and recedes into the shade, the way Raphael makes us feel the volume of the body wrapped in the freely flowing mantle, the firm and tender way in which she holds and supports the Christ Child - all this contributes to the effect of perfect poise. We feel that to change the group ever so slightly would upset the whole harmony. Yet there is nothing strained or sophisticated in the composition. It looks as if it could not be otherwise, and as if it had so existed from the beginning of time.

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Madonna della Sedia. 1512-1514. Oil on panel. Palazzo Pitti, Galleria Palatina, Florence,
마돈나 델라 세디아는 '의자의 성모 마리아'  평범한 나무 의자에 앉아있는 마리아. 마리아는 푸른 겉옷과 붉은 옷 대신 평범한 아낙네의 일상복을 입고 아기와 행복한 시간을 보내는 젊은 어머니로 보인다.


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Sistine Madonna. c.1513-1514. Oil on panel. Alte Meister Gallerie, Dresden, Germany

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The small Cowper Madonna
c. 1505 (120 kB); Oil on wood, 59.5 x 44 cm (23 3/8 x 17 3/8 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington

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La Fornarina. c.1518-1519. Oil on panel. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome,

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The nymph Galateac.
c. 1512-14 (170 kB); Fresco, 295 x 225 cm (116 x 88 1/2 in); Villa Farnesina, Rome
갈라테아는 외눈박이 괴물 폴리페무스가 짝사랑한 여인. 괴물이 부르는 사랑의 노래에 고개를 젖혀서 뒤를 돌아보는  갈라테아의 모습. 공중에 떠있는 사랑의 신, 구름의 움직임, 소용돌이치는 파도를 타는 바다괴물들의 싸움은  화면 전체에 끊임없는  웁직임을 보여준다. 한사람이라도 빠진다면 구성의 짜임새가 허물어지고 균형이 깨지게 된다.

Raphael painted this small fresco in the villa (now called the Farnesina) of a rich banker, Agostino Chigi. As subject he chose a verse from a poem by the Florentine Angelo Poliziano which had also helped to inspire Botticelli's Birth of Venus. These lines describe how the clumsy giant Polyphemus sings a love song to the fair sea-nymph Galatea and how she rides across the waves in a chariot drawn by two dolphins, laughing at his uncouth song, while the gay company of other sea-gods and nymphs is milling round her. Raphael's fresco shows Galatea with her gay companions; the picture of the giant was to appear elsewhere in the hall. However long one looks at this lovely and cheerful picture, one will always discover new beauties in its rich and intricate composition. Every figure seems to correspond to some other figure, every movement to answer a counter-movement. We have observed this method in Pollaiuolo's showpiece. But how rigid and dull his solution looks in comparison with Raphael's! To start with the small boys with Cupid's bows and arrows who aim at the heart of the nymph: not only do those to right and left echo each other's movements, but the boy swimming beside the chariot corresponds to the one flying at the top of the picture. It is the same with the group of sea-gods which seems to be 'wheeling' round the nymph. There are two on the margins, who blow on their sea-shells, and two pairs in front and behind, who are making love to each other. But what is more admirable is that all these diverse movements are somehow reflected and taken up in the figure of Galatea herself. Her chariot had been driving from left to right with her veil blowing backwards, but, hearing the strange love song, she turns round and smiles, and all the lines in the picture, from the love-gods' arrows to the reins she holds, converge on her beautiful face in the very center of the picture. By these artistic means Raphael has achieved constant movement throughout the picture, without letting it become restless or unbalanced. It is for this supreme mastery of arranging his figures, this consummate skill in composition, that artists have admired Raphael ever since. Just as Michelangelo was found to have reached the highest peak in the mastery of the human body, Raphael was seen to have accomplished what the older generation had striven so hard to achieve: the perfect and harmonious composition of freely moving figures.

There was another quality in Raphael's work that was admired by his contemporaries and by subsequent generations - the sheer beauty of his figures. When he had finished the Galatea, Raphael was asked by a courtier where in all the world he had found a model of such beauty. He replied that he did not copy any specific model but rather followed 'a certain idea' he had formed in his mind. To some extent, then, Raphael, like his teacher Perugino, had abandoned the faithful portrayal of nature which had been the ambition of so many Quattrocento artists. He deliberately used an imagined type of regular beauty. If we look back to the time of Praxiteles, we remember how what we call an 'ideal' beauty grew out of a slow approximation of schematic forms to nature. Now the process was reversed. Artists tried to modify nature according to the idea of beauty they had formed when looking at classical statues - they 'idealized' the model. It was a tendency not without its dangers, for, if the artist deliberately 'improves on' nature, his work may easily look mannered or insipid. But if we look once more at Raphael's work, we see that he, at any rate, could idealize without any loss of vitality and sincerity in the result. There is nothing schematic or calculated in Galatea's loveliness. She is an inmate of a brighter world of love and beauty - the world of the classics as it appeared to its admirers in sixteenth- century Italy.

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Bindo Altoviti
c. 1515 (120 kB); Oil on wood, 60 x 44 cm (23 1/2 x 17 1/4 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington


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The School of Athens
Raphael, 15091510
Fresco, 500 × 770 cm
Vatican City, Apostolic Palace
The School of Athens
or "Scuola di Atene" in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1510 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens the second painting to be finished after La disputa.
 
바티칸의 교황 집무실 벽면에 그린 <아테나 학당>, 플라톤은 손으로 하늘을 가리키면서 영원히 변하지 않는 완전한 이데아의 세계에 대하여설면한다. 아리스토텔레스는 팔을 앞으로 뻗어서 지상을 가리키며 현실 세상을 살아가면서 인간들이 지켜야 할 도덕과 윤리의 중요성을 이야기한다. 이상을 추구하며 동시에 현실을 살아가는 지혜를 조화롭게 이것은 르네상스 예술가들의 정신적인 목표를 그리고 있다.
르네상스의 열린공간을 건축의 아치문을 통하여 보여주고, 성인과 같은 철학자들의 후광을 만들어주고 있다. 레오나르도 다비니치가 최후의 만찬에서 그러했던 것처럼.


Because it was positioned over the philosophical section of the library of Pope Julius II, The School of Athens shows the greatest philosophers, scientists and mathematicians of classical antiquity. Plato and Aristotle, the Greek philosophers that were considered most important, are standing in the center of the composition at the top of the steps. Plato is holding his Timaeus. Aristotle is carrying a copy of his Nichomachean Ethics. Their gestures correspond to their interests in the philosophical field — Plato is pointing upwards towards Heaven and Aristotle is gesturing towards the earth.

Diogenes is lying carefree on the steps before them to show his philosophical attitude: he despised all material wealth and the lifestyle associated with it. To the left, the man leaning on the block is Heraclites, meant to be Michelangelo. This figure was an afterthought: it was not in the original cartoon. In 1510, Raphael snuck into the Sistine Chapel to view Michelangelo’s work on the ceiling by candle light. He was so awed by the unfinished work that he added Michelangelo after the manner of his depiction of the Prophet Jeremiah, to show his respect for the artist.

Raphael's self portrait is at the far lower-right of the fresco, the young man with brown hair staring straight out at the audience. On the left of the painting a girl-like figure, dressed in white, is also staring out at the audience. It is thought to represent Hypatia of Alexandria. Romantic legend has it that the model was Raphael's love, Margherita. Other interpretations, however, claim that it is a portrait of the young Francesco Maria I della Rovere. One of Raphael's contemporary portraits appears to show the same androgynous figure from a similar angle.




The bracketted names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thought to have drawn his likenesses. 1: Zeno of Citium or Zeno of Elea? — 2: Epicurus — 3: Unknown — (Frederik II of Mantua?) 4: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? — ? 5: Averroes — ? 6: Pythagoras — ? 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? — ? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon? — ? 9: Hypatia — (Francesco Maria della Rovere or Raphael's mistress Margherita.) 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? — ? 11: Parmenides? — ? 12: Socrates — ? 13: Heraclitus — (Michelangelo). 14: Plato holding the Timaeus — ( Leonardo da Vinci). 15: Aristotle holding the Ethics — ? 16: Diogenes of Sinope — ? 17: Plotinus? — ? 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students — ( Bramante)? 19: Strabo or Zoroaster? — (Baldassare Castiglione or Pietro Bembo). 20: Ptolemy — ? R: Apelles — (Raphael). 21: Protogenes — (Il Sodoma or Perugino)[2].

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Raphael. The Annunciation (from the predella of the Coronation of the Virgin). c. 1503-1504. Oil on panel, transferred to canvas. Vaticano, Pinacoteca Apostolica Vaticano, Rome, Italy.
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Hieronymus Bosch(1450-1516)

      Bosch’s pictures have always fascinated viewers, but in earlier centuries it was widely assumed that his diabolic scenes were intended merely to amuse or titillate, most people regarded him as “the inventor of monsters and chimeras’.
Philip II, though, collected his works more for education than for entertainment. A Dutch art historian in the early 17th century described Bosch’s paintings chiefly as ‘wondrous and strange fantasies… often less pleasant than gruesome to look at’. In the 20th century, however, scholars decided that Bosch’s art has a more profound significance, and there have been many attempts to explain its origins and meaning. Some writers saw him as a sort of 15th century surrealist and linked his name with that of Salvator Dali. For others, Bosch’s art reflects mysterious practices of the Middle Ages. No matter what explanation and comprehension of his art might be, Bosch remains the most extravagant painter of his time


Timeline: Late Gothic Painting

The master of the monstrous... the discoverer of the unconscious.
-- Carl Gustav Jung, on Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus, or Jerome, Bosch, b. c.1450, d. August 1516, spent his entire artistic career in the small Dutch town of Hertogenbosch, from which he derived his name.

At the time of his death, Bosch was internationally celebrated as an eccentric painter of religious visions who dealt in particular with the torments of hell. During his lifetime Bosch's works were in the inventories of noble families of the Netherlands, Austria, and Spain, and they were imitated in a number of paintings and prints throughout the 16th century, especially in the works of Pieter Bruegel the Elder.

Bosch was a member of the religious Brotherhood of Our Lady, for whom he painted several altarpieces for the Cathedral of Saint John's, Hertogenbosch, all of which are now lost. The artist probably never went far from home, although records exist of a commission in 1504 from Philip the Handsome (later king of Castile), for a lost Last Judgment altarpiece. None of Bosch's pictures are dated, although the artist signed many of them.

16세기 말 스페인의 음울한 왕 필립페 2세가 인간의 간악함에 대해서 관심을. 보슈의 그림은 소름끼치는 지옥의광경, 악이 세상을 침범하는 것을 본다. 중세사람들의 마음을 사로잡고 괴롭히던 공포심을 구체적이고 실감나는 형상으로 표현하는데 성공한 미술가.

 

The Stone Operation. 1475-1480. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Removing "stones" from the head was a fairly common medieval operation; however, for some reason Bosch has painted a flower as the object being removed.
The Stone Operation. There was an old Dutch saying for a person of odd behavior that he had 'a stone in the head'. Trading on credulity of simple people, charlatans would offer to extract stones. They always found patients among those with headaches. The 'surgeon' would then tie his patient safely to a bench, make a small cut and under cries, moans and groans of the victim produce a pebble or two covered with blood. These 'surgeons' were a popular object of satire in the 17th century.

Scenes from the Passion of Christ and the Pelican with Her Young. Reverse of St. John the Evangelist on Patmos. 1485. Oil on panel. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemaldegalerie, Berlin, Germany.

 

Tabletop of the Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things. 1485. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
The Seven Deadly Sins is a painted rectangle with a central image of the eye of God, with Christ watching the world. The Seven Deadly Sins, depicted through scenes of worldly transgression, are arranged around the circular shape. The circular layout with god in the centre represents gods all seeing eye No sin goes unnoticed. In the corners of the image appear the "Four Last Things" mentioned in late medieval spiritual handbooks: Deathbed, the Last Judgment, Heaven, and Hell, all of which are favorite themes of separate Bosch panels.
  1. luxuria (lechery/lust)[10][11][12]
  2. gula (gluttony)
  3. avaritia (avarice/greed)
  4. acedia (sloth/discouragement)
  5. ira (wrath)
  6. invidia (envy)
  7. superbia (pride)
Christ Carrying the Cross. 1490. Oil on panel. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Ghent, Belgium
Bosch's belief in the pervasive evil of the world colored his paintings of more conventional religious subjects; the stories of Christ and the saints became images of torment by demons or mobs of mocking humans. Typical of these interpretations are the numerous images from Christ's passion, such as the half-length Crowning with Thorns, or Christ Being Shown to the People (c.1485; National Gallery, London). A representative image of this type is the view, also half-length, of Christ Carrying the Cross (c.1490; Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent), in which a crowd of grotesque faces seems to swallow up the face of the suffering Christ.

Ecce Homo. 1485-1490. Oil on panel. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA. (=Behold the man!) 이 사람을 보라(Pilate가 가시면류관
을 쓴 예수를 가리키며 유대인에게 한 말; 요한 복음 ⅪⅩ: 5); 가시 면류관을 쓴 예수의 초상화


Paradise and Hell
c. 1510 (170 Kb); Left and right panels of a triptych: oil on wood, Each panel 135 x 45 cm (53 1/4 x 17 3/4 in); Prado, Madrid

 The greatest Netherlandish artist of the period are not found among the adherents of the New Style but among those who, like Grunewald in Germany, refused to be drawn into the modern movement from the South. In the Dutch town of Hertogenbosch there lived such a painter, who was called Hieronymous Bosch. Very little is known about him. We do not know how old he was when he died in 1516, but he must have been active for a considerable time since he became an independent master in 1486. Like Grunewald, Bosch showed that the traditions and achievements of painting which had been developed to represent reality most convincingly could be turned round, as it were, to give us an equally plausible picture of things no human eye had seen. He became famous for his terrifying representations of the powers of evil. Perhaps it is no accident that the gloomy King Philip II of Spain, later in the century, had a special predilection for this artist, who was so much concerned with man's wickedness. The picture shows two wings from one of Bosch's triptychs he bought and which is therefore still in Spain. On the left we watch evil invading the world. The creation of Eve is followed by the temptation of Adam and both are driven out of Paradise, while high above in the sky we see the fall of the rebellious angels, who are hurled from heaven as a swarm of repulsive insects. On the other wing we are shown a vision of hell. There we see horror piled upon horror, fires and torments and all manner of fearful demons, half animal, half human or half machine, who plague and punish the poor sinful souls for all eternity. For the first and perhaps for the only time, an artist had succeeded in giving concrete and tangible shape to the fears that had haunted the minds of man in the Middle Ages. It was an achievement which was perhaps only possible at this very moment, when the old ideas were still vigorous and yet the modern spirit had provided the artist with methods of representing what he saw. Perhaps Hieronymus Bosch could have written on one of his paintings of hell what Jan van Eyck wrote on his peaceful scene of the Arnolfinis' betrothal: 'I was there'.



Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)의 신곡 이 천국과 지옥을 글로 쓴 것이라면,
 보쉬는 그것을 그림으로 그림 최초의 화가였다.


Creation of the World
Outer wings (shutters), depicting the third day of creation (140 Kb)

Paradise. c.1504-1510. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Garden of Earthly Delights.
Central panel. c.1504-1510. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

Hell. c.1504-1510. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

Bosch's most famous and unconventional picture is The Garden of Earthly Delights (c.1500; Prado, Madrid) which, like most of his other ambitious works, is a large, 3-part altarpiece, called a triptych. This painting was probably made for the private enjoyment of a noble family. It is named for the luscious garden in the central panel, which is filled with cavorting nudes and giant birds and fruit. The triptych depicts the history of the world and the progression of sin. Beginning on the outside shutters with the creation of the world, the story progresses from Adam and Eve and original sin on the left panel to the torments of hell, a dark, icy, yet fiery nightmarish vision, on the right. The Garden of Delights in the center illustrates a world deeply engaged in sinful pleasures.

In reference to astrological alignments at the time this was painted, a lot of the instruments of torture are also musical instruments.

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  1. @artnstory art holic 2009.10.18 18:09 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    후에 스페인 고전주의 작가 고야, 초현실주의 스페인 작가 달리, 벨기에의 마그리뜨까지 그의 작품을 흠모하며 새로운 공포, 이상한 기분, 상상의 세계로 표현하였다.,

Titian

History of Arts/Renaissance 2020. 5. 18. 22:52 |

 (1488/90 - 1576) Titian or Tiziano Vecellio was born in a small alpine village of Pieve di Cadore, now not far from the Austrian border, where his family lived for many years. His parents, Lucia and Gregorio di Conte dei Vecelli, were respectable people of modest means. In about 1498, at the age of nine or ten, Titian and his elder brother Francesco were sent to Venice to start their training as painters in the workshop of the mosaicist Sebastiano Zuccato. Though soon Titian left his workshop  and began studying painting in the workshops of Gentile Bellini and Giovanni Bellini. It is believed, that his earliest surviving work..

베네치아 학파의 색으로 인한 무게 중심과 균형
 빛과 공기와 색채로써 이 장면을 통일- 생기있고 활기차게

Titian. Concert Champetre. c.1510-1511. Oil on canvas. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Titian. Assumption of the Virgin (Assunta). 1516-1518. Oil on wood. Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Italy.

 

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Titian.
Madonna with saints and members of the Pesaro family 1519-26 (170 Kb); Altar-painting: oil on canvas, 478 x 266 cm (188 1/8 x 104 3/4 in); Church of Sta Maria dei Frari, Venice

 

Titian. Cupid with the Wheel of Fortune. c.1520. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA.


Titian. Venus of Urbino. 1538. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.

Titian. Danae. 1545. Oil on canvas. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy
<황금비를 맞는 다나에>제우스가 황금소나기로 변하여 다나에를 유혹.

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Penitent Mary Magdalen
1560s (180 Kb); Oil on canvas, 118 x 97 cm (46 1/2 x 38 in); Hermitage, St. Petersburg


Titian. Bacchus and Ariadne. 1520-1522. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery, London, UK.
ultramarine
vermilion
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Albrecht Dürer

(1471-1528) 

Timeline: Northern Renaissance
I hold that the perfection of form and beauty is contained in the sum of all men.
-- Dürer, Four Books on Human Proportions, 1528

Dürer, Albrecht (b. May 21, 1471, Imperial Free City of Nürnberg [Germany]--d. April 6, 1528, Nürnberg), German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and art theorist, generally regarded as the greatest German Renaissance artist. His vast body of work includes altarpieces and religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits, and copper engravings. His woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series (1498), retain a more Gothic flavour than the rest of his work.

Born in Nürnberg as the third son of the Hungarian goldsmith Albrecht Dürer. Began as an apprentice to his father in 1485, but his earliest known work, one of his many self portraits, was made in 1484. Died in Nürnberg in 1528.

During1513 and 1514 Dürer created the greatest of his copperplate engravings: the Knight, St. Jerome in His Study, and Melencolia I--all of approximately the same size, about 24.5 by 19.1 cm (9.5 by 7.5 inches). The extensive, complex, and often contradictory literature concerning these three engravings deals largely with their enigmatic, allusive, iconographic details. Although repeatedly contested, it probably must be accepted that the engravings were intended to be interpreted together. There is general agreement, however, that Dürer, in these three master engravings, wished to raise his artistic intensity to the highest level, which he succeeded in doing. Finished form and richness of conception and mood merge into a whole of classical perfection.

환상적이고 환영적인 세계를 그리는 거장



Self-Portraits

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Self-portrait at 22 (Selfportrait with flower)
1493 (140 Kb); Oil on linen, transferred from vellum, 57 x 45 cm; Musee du Louvre, Paris

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Self-Portrait at 26
1498 (140 Kb); Oil on panel, 52 x 41 cm; Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

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Self-Portrait at 28 (Self-Portrait in Furcoat)
1500 (120 Kb); Oil on panel, 67 x 49 cm (26 1/4" x 19 1/4"); Alte Pinakothek, Munich
자신감 넘치는 시선. 거울속에 비친 자신의 모습을 관찰하면서 캔버스에 옮겨 그리는 방식.

Engravings

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Melencolia I (La Melancolie)
1514 (80 Kb); Gravure sur cuivre, 24 x 19cm

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St. Jerome dans sa cellule
1514 (200 Kb); Engraving

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Knight, Death and the Devil

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St. John devours the book
(Albrecht Durer, 1496-98)

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Albrecht Dürer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498.

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Putti Dancing and Making Music. 1495. Black ink on paper. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia.

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Albrecht Dürer
Rhinoceros
woodcut, 1515

From the exhibition Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy
British Museum, London
December 5, 2002 through March 23, 2003

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A Young Hare. 1502. Watercolour and gouache on paper. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria

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The Large Turf. 1503. Watercolour and gouache on paper. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria.

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Wing of a Roller. 1512. Watercolour and gouache on vellum. Graphische Sammlung
파랑새의 날개. 자연을 그대로 관찰하는 법을 알고 표현.

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Albertina, Vienna, Austria.Portrait of a Young Venetian Woman
1505 (110 Kb); Oil on panel, 33 x 25 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

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Portrait of Durer's Father at 70
1497 (130 Kb); Oil on panel, 51 x 40 cm; National Gallery, London

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  1. @artnstory art holic 2009.10.18 16:51 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    자연을 거울에 비친 것처럼 충실하게 재현

Timeline: Gothic Innovation in the North

벨기에와 네덜란드 지역을 플랑드르라 불렀다.
북유럽에서는 얀 반 에이크가 거울을 이용하여 사실성을 부각시키고 세세한 부분을 그리기 위해 유화를 발명하였다. <아르놀피니의 약혼>은 사진과 같은 가장 유명한 초상화이다. 

 
Eyck, Jan van
(b. before 1395, Maaseik, Bishopric of Li?e, Holy Roman Empire [now in Belgium]--d. before July 9, 1441, Bruges), Flemish painter who perfected the newly developed technique of oil painting. His naturalistic panel paintings, mostly portraits and religious subjects, made extensive use of disguised religious symbols. His masterpiece is the altarpiece in the cathedral at Ghent, the Adoration of the Lamb (1432). Hubert van Eyck is thought by some to have been Jan's brother.

Jan van Eyck, the most famous and innovative Flemish painter of the 15th century, is thought to have come from the village of Maaseyck in Limbourg.

No record of his birthdate survives, but it is believed to have been about 1390; his career, however, is well documented. He was employed (1422-24) at the court of John of Bavaria, count of Holland, at The Hague, and in 1425 he was made court painter and valet de chambre to Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy. He became a close member of the duke's court and undertook several secret missions for him, including a trip (1428-29) to Spain and Portugal in connection with negotiations that resulted in the marriage (1430) of Philip of Burgundy and Isabella of Portugal. Documents show that in 1432-33 van Eyck bought a house in Bruges. He signed and dated a number of paintings between 1432 and 1439, all of which are painted in oil and varnished. According to documents, he was buried on July 9, 1441.


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The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami; 1434 (130 Kb); Oil on wood, 81.8 x 59.7 cm (32 1/4 x 23 1/2 in); National Gallery, London
아르놀피니 부부의 초상 - 결혼 증명서?


This title has traditionally been given to this painting because it was thought to be a form of ``wedding certificate'' for Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami, who married in Bruges in 1434. He was an Italian merchant, she the daughter of an Italian merchant. Their grave, youthful faces both have a lovely responsability that is typical of van Eyck.

Van Eyck's art reached perhaps its greatest triumph in the painting of portraits. One of his most famous portraits is The betrothal of the Arnolfini, which represents an Italian merchant, Giovanni Arnolfini, who had come to the Netherlands on business, with his bride Jeanne de Chenany. In its own way it was as new and as revolutionary as Donatello's or Masaccio's work in Italy. A simple corner of the real world had suddenly been fixed on to a panel as if by magic. Here it all was - the carpet and the slippers, the rosary on the wall, the little brush beside the bed, and the fruit on the window-sill. It is as if we could pay a visit to the Arnolfini in their house. The picture probably represents a solemn moment in their lives - their betrothal. The young woman has just put her right hand into Arnolfini's left and he is about to put his own right hand into hers as a solemn token of their union. Probably the painter was asked to record this important moment as a witness, just as a notary might be asked to declare that he has been present at a similar solemn act. This would explain why the master has put his name in a prominent position on the picture with the Latin words 'Johannes de eyck fuit hic' (Jan van Eyck was here). In the mirror at the back of the room we see the whole scene reflected from behind, and there, so it seems, we also see the image of the painter and witness. We do not know whether it was the Italian merchant or the northern artist who conceived the idea of making this use of the new kind of painting, which may be compared to the legal use of a photograph, properly endorsed by a witness. But whoever it was that originated this idea, he had certainly been quick to understand the tremendous possibilities which lay in Van Eyck's new way of painting. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term.

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Symbolic candle
The solitary flame burning in bright daylight can be interpreted as the bridall candle, or God's all-seeing eye, or simply as a devotional candle. Another symbol is St Margaret (the patron saint of women in childbirth), whose image is carved on the high chairback.
샹들리에의 촛불은 만물을 꿰뚫어보는 그리스도를, 강아지는 부부사이의 정절, 벗어놓은 신발은 성스러운 서약의 장소이기 때문.
An elaborate signature
As today, marriages in 15th-century Flanders could take place privately rather than in church. Van Eyck's Latin signature, in the Gothic calligraphy used for legal documents, reads: ``Jan van Eyck was present'', and has been interpreted by some as an indication that the artist himself served as a witness.


The mirror is painted with almost miraculous skill. Its carved frame is inset with ten miniature medallions depicting scenes from the life of Christ. Yet more remarkable is the mirror's reflection, which includes van Eyck's own tiny self-portrait, accompanied by another man who may have been the official witness to the ceremony.

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Convex mirror The Arnolfini Marriage
1434; detail: the ornate mirror on the back wall


Symbol of faithfulness
Almost every detail can be interpreted as a symbol. The companion dog is seen as a symbol of faithfulness and love. The fruits on the window ledge probably stand for fertility and our fall from Paradise. Even the discarded shoes are not thought to be incidental, but to signify the sanctity of marriage.

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The Ghent altarpiece

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outer wings)
detail, Adam from left wing, Eve from right; 1432 (50 Kb); Panel painting; Cathedral of St. Bavo, Ghent

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The Ghent Altarpiece
detail of lower central panel; 1432 (70 Kb); Panel painting; Cathedral of Bavon, Ghent


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Timeline: The High Renaissance

르네상스 전성기에는 건축가 브라만테의 템피에토와 르네상스 전성기의 최고 3대 예술가

레오나르도 다 빈치, 미켈란젤로, 라파엘로가 있다. 레오나르도 다 빈치는 르네상스 인간이라 불리 우는 천재로 모든 사물의 근본인 물, 불, 공기, 땅에 관련된 분야의 전문가로서, 예술뿐만 아니라 해부학, 물리학, 의학 자연과학 등 다방면으로 창작활동을 보였다. 그의 작품으로는 <모나리자>와 <최후의 만찬>이 있다.


레오나르도 다 빈치Leonardo DA VINCI (b. 1452, Vinci, Republic of Florence [now in Italy]--d. May 2, 1519, Cloux, Fr.), Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the
Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper (1495-97) and Mona Lisa (1503-06) are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance. His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of his time.

황금비율

르네상스의 천재.
르네상스적인 천재라고 일컫는 레오나르도 다 빈치.
이름부터 생김새까지 성격과 능력까지 완벽한 사람.
(현대사회에 점점 이런 인간들이 등장하고 있는 것 같아 불안타.)

그는 천재답게 다방면에서 능통했고,
그러다보니 길지 않은 생애에서
안타깝게도 많은 작품을 남기지는 못했으나,
중요한 소스를 현대 다양한 학문에 남기게 된다.


21세기는 컴퓨터가 최고의 자리이듯이 15~16세기 르네상스시대에는 단연 예술이 최고.         과학, 의학, 건축, 항공학 등에서도 활동하였으나, 그는 예술가이기를 원했다.

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Vitruvian Man
1492
Pen, ink, watercolour and metalpoint on paper, 343 x 245 mm
Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice

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Drawing of a Flying Machine. c.1486. Pen and ink on paper. Bibliotheque de l'Institut de France, Paris, France



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 바르톨로메오 야고보 안드레아  유다  베드로 요한  예수  야고보 토마 필립보 마태오 유대 시몬

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The Last Supper

1498 (180 Kb); Fresco, 460 x 880 cm (15 x 29 ft); Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie (Refectory), Milan       마태복음 26장 21~22절        요한복음 13장 23절~24절 

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제자 한 명이 그를 배반할 것이라고 말하자  제자들이 놀라며 그게 저입니까? 하고 묻는 장면을 묘사, 운동감을 일으키게 한 질문과 제자들의 반응으로 보여진 표정과 몸짓. 각 사도들의 성격과 심리상태를 보고 그가 누구인지까지도 알 수 있는 완벽한 묘사.
<성찬식에서 예수께서 빵을 들어 나누어 주시며 이것이 내 몸이다, 또 잔을 들어 그들에게  이것이 나의 피다>

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La Joconda

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Portrait of Mona Lisa (1479-1528), also known as La Gioconda, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo; 1503-06 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 77 x 53 cm (30 x 20 7/8 in); Musee du Louvre, Paris

This figure of a woman, dressed in the Florentine fashion of her day and seated in a visionary, mountainous landscape, is a remarkable instance of Leonardo's sfumato technique of soft, heavily shaded modeling. The Mona Lisa's enigmatic expression, which seems both alluring and aloof, has given the portrait universal fame.

놀라울 정도로 살아있는 것처럼 보인다는 것  이 모나리자를 그토록 신비하게 만드는 요인이다.
동양산수화 같은 배경에 드러난 산과 물은 여성성을 상징하고, 
 생명 탄생의 물줄기를 암시하고 있다.
 

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Reams have been written about this small masterpiece by Leonardo, and the gentle woman who is its subject has been adapted in turn as an aesthetic, philosophical and advertising symbol, entering eventually into the irreverent parodies of the Dada and Surrealist artists. The history of the panel has been much discussed, although it remains in part uncertain. According to Vasari, the subject is a young Florentine woman, Monna (or Mona) Lisa, who in 1495 married the well-known figure, Francesco del Giocondo, and thus came to be known as ``La Gioconda''. The work should probably be dated during Leonardo's second Florentine period, that is between 1503 and 1505. Leonardo himself loved the portrait, so much so that he always carried it with him until eventually in France it was sold to François I, either by Leonardo or by Melzi.

From the beginning it was greatly admired and much copied, and it came to be considered the prototype of the Renaissance portrait. It became even more famous in 1911, when it was stolen from the Salon Carré in the Louvre, being rediscovered in a hotel in Florence two years later. It is difficult to discuss such a work briefly because of the complex stylistic motifs which are part of it. In the essay ``On the perfect beauty of a woman'', by the 16th-century writer Firenzuola, we learn that the slight opening of the lips at the corners of the mouth was considered in that period a sign of elegance. Thus Mona Lisa has that slight smile which enters into the gentle, delicate atmosphere pervading the whole painting. To achieve this effect, Leonardo uses the sfumato technique, a gradual dissolving of the forms themselves, continuous interaction between light and shade and an uncertain sense of the time of day.

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Virgin and Child with the Infant John the Baptist and St. Anne
National Gallery, London
sketch for the Madonna and Child with St. Anne and John the Baptist, often identified as the Burlington House Cartoon. Leonardo's later treatment of the same subject (without John the Baptist) is in the Louvre.

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The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne
1510 (200 Kb); Oil on wood, 168 x 130 cm (5 1/2 x 4 1/2 ft); Musee du Louvre, Paris

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The Virgin of the Rocks
1503-06 (140 Kb); Oil on wood, 189.5 x 120 cm (6 x 4 ft); National Gallery, London

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 Ginevra de' Benci
c. 1474 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 38.2 x 36.7 cm (15 1/8 x 14 1/2 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

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Self-portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515.[1]
Birth name Leonardo di Ser Piero
Born April 15, 1452(1452-04-15)

Vinci, Florence, in present-day Italy

Died May 2, 1519 (aged 67)
Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, in present-day France
Nationality Italian
Field Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences
Movement High Renaissance
Famous works Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, Vitruvian Ma

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Leonardo da Vinci. The Annunciation. Detail. c. 1472-1475. Oil and tempera on wood. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

 

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TAG 미술

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Timeline: The High Renaissance

미켈란젤로는 신의 창조능력을 지닌 조각가였으나, 시스틴 성당의 천정화 <천지창조>로 더 유명하다.  그 외에도 <최후의 심판>과 조각으로는 <다비드>, <죽어가는 노예>가 있다. 

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni 미켈란젤로 부오나로티(1475-1564) 

새롭게 재조명된 고대철학과 중세의 독단적인 기독교적 가치가 충돌,
두 가지 상반된 대립속에 인문주의와  문화적 혁명이 피렌체를 중심으로 르네상스 시대가 시작.
미켈란젤로는 인문주의적 가치와 기독교적 신앙에도 관심.

미켈란젤로 유모의 남편이 셰티니아노의 채석장에서 일하므로, 돌과 망치를 다루는 기술을 익혔다. 엄마는 죽고 10살때, 아버지 재혼하고 피렌체로...13세부터 그림시작,
조토와 마사치오의 그림을 모사, 로렌조의 후원으로 메디치 정원에서 '목신의 머리' 조각.
로렌조의 후원을 받는 사업가, 철학자, 예술가들과 메디치 궁에서 살다가 로렌조의 사망으로 궁을 나와 17세에 해부학을 연구하고 인체에 관한 비밀 탐구. 당시 사보나롤라의 통치하에 르네상스의 문화가 일시 중지. 1500년 24세 '피에타' 조각-  예수그리스도의 늘어진 육체는 완벽한 나신, 그는 대리석에 자기의 조각이 어디에 숨어있는지를 보고는 돌로부터 그를 해방시켰다.




In full MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI (b. March 6, 1475, Caprese, Republic of Florence [Italy]--d. Feb. 18, 1564, Rome), Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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레오나르도 다빈치가 르네상스적인 천재라면, 조각의 천재는 미켈란젤로.
그의 드로잉에서조차 그가 인간의 해부학을 얼마나 완벽하게 이해했는가를 드러내준다.

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<리비도 무녀를 위한 습작>

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Pieta.
1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican.MICHELANGELO Buonarroti

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1512년, 시스티나 대성당 천정화: 300명 이상의 사람, 33개의 패널. 37세 그는 자신의 의지와는 상관없이 37세에 회화의 대가가 되있었다. 교황 율리우스 2세 덕분에. 13명의 조수는 잡일뿐, 천정화의 대부분을 그 자신이 직접 그렸다. 4년만에 완성.
<아담의 창조><인간의 타락><노아 이야기>의 3장9화면.

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The Creation of Adam. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
하느님의 손길을 중심에 두고, 간단하고 힘차게 위대한 창조의 모습을 통해서 신의 전지전능함을 우리의 눈으로 볼 수 있게 만든 방법은 미술의 가장 위대한 기적중의 하나

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The Fall of Man and the Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,

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David
Gigantic marble, started in 1501 and completed in 1504
Michelangelo began work on the colossal figure of David in 1501, and by 1504 the sculpture (standing at 4.34m/14 ft 3 in tall) was in place outside the Palazzo Vecchio. The choice of David was supposed to reflect the power and determination of Republican Florence and was under constant attack from supporters of the usurped Medicis. In the 19th century the statue was moved to the Accademia
David is the most popular hero of the Bible, his story is told in The First and in the Second Books of Samuel. He descended from the tribe of Judah, started his career as a shepherd, and was anointed by the prophet Samuel, 'And the Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David from that day forward' (1 Samuel 16:13).
            At the age of 18 David was admitted to king Saul’s entourage as a musician. The main concern of the king was the war with the Philistines, among whom fought the giant Goliath. David asked Saul’s permission to fight Goliath. David killed Goliath with a stone thrown from his sling and then beheaded him with Goliath's own sword. On seeing this the Philistine army fled.

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내적 역동감, 고대 누드의 영향, 해부학적 지식, 피렌체를 상징하는 시민의 자유를 대변하는 조각상 다비드. 그에게 있어서 조각은 돌에 갇힌 자신의 창조물을 해방시키는 일이었다.

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죽어가는 노예.Dying Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre, Paris, France
육체가 죽음의 지배를 받는 순간을 초연하고 아름답게 묘사하고 있다.

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Moses  1515  Marble, height 235 cm     S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
모세의 거상으로 빈곤과 작별, 작업현장을 학교로...
 1527년 로마는 독일군의 침략으로
그의 낙관적인 작업은 사라지고 50대 중반 토마스와의 순수한 사랑으로  보다 심오해지고 복잡.

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Brutus. 1540. Marble. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy.

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Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.

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Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.


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The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican

제단화의 주제는 최후의 심판. 기독교에서 최후의 심판날이 오면 죽은 사람들이 무덤에서 일어나 다시 심판을 받게 된다. 맨 위는 수난도구를 들고 등장하는 천사들. 그 아래에는 심판자 예수가 오른팔을 들고 있는 모습, 예수 옆에는 마리아가 죄지은 영혼들의 용서를 구하면서 탄원. 그 아래에는 선한 영혼과 악한 영혼들이 푸른 창공을 떠돌고 있다. 맨 아래쪽에는 무덤을 열고 일어나는 사람들과 지옥불로 끌려가는 사람들이 보인다.


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수염없는 근육질의 아폴론을 닮은 하나님!  이교도적 표현에 거부감.
벽화에 대한 논란이 심해지자, 신교에서 반감.
벗은 몸을 부분부분 천으로 가리는 작업이 다른사람에 의해 이루어졌다.

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 59세에 착수, 7년만에 완성. 391명의 인물.

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저주받은 영혼, 천사와 악마가 서로 영혼을 가져가려고 다투고있다.  그 광경을 차마 볼 수 없어 한 손으로 눈을 가리고 있다.

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The interior of the Sistine Chapel showing the ceiling fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican.

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St. Peter's. 1546-1564. Rome, Italy.
베드로 성당 중앙 돔을 미켈란젤로가 설계

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Capitoline Hill. Piazza Campidoglio, Rome, Italy.

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사용자 삽입 이미지

투박한 미완성 작품, 그의 첫작품과 같은 제목의 마지막 작품.

젊었을때는: 아름다움을 추구하였으나, 노년에는: 내면 (신앙)을 작품하였다.
탐미를 위해 바쳤던 기도가 인간을 있는 그대로 묘사하게 된다. 우주의 중심에 있는 인간으로서...
 89세에 세상을 떠나기 8일전까지 작업하였다.
1564년

Posted by @artnstory art holic

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  1. Michel 2008.02.03 17:59 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    Thank you very much for such a lot of information. Because of this i got 7 in my test!

  2. @artnstory art holic 2008.02.05 03:00 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    my pleasure~