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Timeline: The High Renaissance

라파엘로는 우르비노의 궁정화가였던  아버지의 도움으로 성격이 온화하고 감성이 풍부한 천재화가가 되었다.

Italian in full RAFFAELLO SANZIO (b. April 6, 1483, Urbino, Duchy of Urbino [Italy]--d. April 6, 1520, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.

While we may term other works paintings, those of Raphael are living things; the flesh palpitates, the breath comes and goes, every organ lives, life pulsates everywhere.
-- Vasari, Lives of the Artists

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Madonna dell Granduca c. 1505 (110 Kb); Oil on wood, 84 x 55 cm (33 x 21 1/2 in); Palazzo Pitti, Florence
<대공의 성모> 르네상스의 아름다움을 가장 완벽하게 표현했다는 찬사를 받은 작품.
성모마리아와 아기예수그리스도.
비잔틴 초기 기독교 미술에 보여지던 icon이 르네상스에서도 계속 나타는 주제이다.
서기 5세기에 마리아는 신을 낳은 자, 예수의 어머니라는 뜻의 테오토코스 라고 불린다.

Raphael's greatest paintings seem so effortless that one does not usually connect them with the idea of hard and relentless work. To many he is simply the painter of sweet Madonnas which have become so well known as hardly to be appreciated as paintings any more. For Raphael's vision of the Holy Virgin has been adopted by subsequent generations in the same way as Michelangelo's conception of God the Father We see cheap reproductions of these works in humble dwellings, and we are apt to conclude that paintings with such a general appeal must surely be a little 'obvious'. In fact, their apparent simplicity is the fruit of deep thought, careful planning and immense artistic wisdom. A painting like Raphael's Madonna dell Granduca, is truly 'classical' in the sense that it has served countless generations as a standard of perfection in the same way as the works of Pheidias and Praxiteles. It needs no explanation. In this respect it is indeed 'obvious'. But, if we compare it with the countless representations of the same theme which preceded it, we feel that they have all been groping for the very simplicity that Raphael has attained. We can see what Raphael did owe to the calm beauty of Perugino's types, but what a difference there is between the rather empty regularity of the master and the fullness of life in the pupil! The way the Virgin's face is modeled and recedes into the shade, the way Raphael makes us feel the volume of the body wrapped in the freely flowing mantle, the firm and tender way in which she holds and supports the Christ Child - all this contributes to the effect of perfect poise. We feel that to change the group ever so slightly would upset the whole harmony. Yet there is nothing strained or sophisticated in the composition. It looks as if it could not be otherwise, and as if it had so existed from the beginning of time.

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Madonna della Sedia. 1512-1514. Oil on panel. Palazzo Pitti, Galleria Palatina, Florence,
마돈나 델라 세디아는 '의자의 성모 마리아'  평범한 나무 의자에 앉아있는 마리아. 마리아는 푸른 겉옷과 붉은 옷 대신 평범한 아낙네의 일상복을 입고 아기와 행복한 시간을 보내는 젊은 어머니로 보인다.

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Sistine Madonna. c.1513-1514. Oil on panel. Alte Meister Gallerie, Dresden, Germany

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The small Cowper Madonna
c. 1505 (120 kB); Oil on wood, 59.5 x 44 cm (23 3/8 x 17 3/8 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington

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La Fornarina. c.1518-1519. Oil on panel. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome,

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The nymph Galateac.
c. 1512-14 (170 kB); Fresco, 295 x 225 cm (116 x 88 1/2 in); Villa Farnesina, Rome
갈라테아는 외눈박이 괴물 폴리페무스가 짝사랑한 여인. 괴물이 부르는 사랑의 노래에 고개를 젖혀서 뒤를 돌아보는  갈라테아의 모습. 공중에 떠있는 사랑의 신, 구름의 움직임, 소용돌이치는 파도를 타는 바다괴물들의 싸움은  화면 전체에 끊임없는  웁직임을 보여준다. 한사람이라도 빠진다면 구성의 짜임새가 허물어지고 균형이 깨지게 된다.

Raphael painted this small fresco in the villa (now called the Farnesina) of a rich banker, Agostino Chigi. As subject he chose a verse from a poem by the Florentine Angelo Poliziano which had also helped to inspire Botticelli's Birth of Venus. These lines describe how the clumsy giant Polyphemus sings a love song to the fair sea-nymph Galatea and how she rides across the waves in a chariot drawn by two dolphins, laughing at his uncouth song, while the gay company of other sea-gods and nymphs is milling round her. Raphael's fresco shows Galatea with her gay companions; the picture of the giant was to appear elsewhere in the hall. However long one looks at this lovely and cheerful picture, one will always discover new beauties in its rich and intricate composition. Every figure seems to correspond to some other figure, every movement to answer a counter-movement. We have observed this method in Pollaiuolo's showpiece. But how rigid and dull his solution looks in comparison with Raphael's! To start with the small boys with Cupid's bows and arrows who aim at the heart of the nymph: not only do those to right and left echo each other's movements, but the boy swimming beside the chariot corresponds to the one flying at the top of the picture. It is the same with the group of sea-gods which seems to be 'wheeling' round the nymph. There are two on the margins, who blow on their sea-shells, and two pairs in front and behind, who are making love to each other. But what is more admirable is that all these diverse movements are somehow reflected and taken up in the figure of Galatea herself. Her chariot had been driving from left to right with her veil blowing backwards, but, hearing the strange love song, she turns round and smiles, and all the lines in the picture, from the love-gods' arrows to the reins she holds, converge on her beautiful face in the very center of the picture. By these artistic means Raphael has achieved constant movement throughout the picture, without letting it become restless or unbalanced. It is for this supreme mastery of arranging his figures, this consummate skill in composition, that artists have admired Raphael ever since. Just as Michelangelo was found to have reached the highest peak in the mastery of the human body, Raphael was seen to have accomplished what the older generation had striven so hard to achieve: the perfect and harmonious composition of freely moving figures.

There was another quality in Raphael's work that was admired by his contemporaries and by subsequent generations - the sheer beauty of his figures. When he had finished the Galatea, Raphael was asked by a courtier where in all the world he had found a model of such beauty. He replied that he did not copy any specific model but rather followed 'a certain idea' he had formed in his mind. To some extent, then, Raphael, like his teacher Perugino, had abandoned the faithful portrayal of nature which had been the ambition of so many Quattrocento artists. He deliberately used an imagined type of regular beauty. If we look back to the time of Praxiteles, we remember how what we call an 'ideal' beauty grew out of a slow approximation of schematic forms to nature. Now the process was reversed. Artists tried to modify nature according to the idea of beauty they had formed when looking at classical statues - they 'idealized' the model. It was a tendency not without its dangers, for, if the artist deliberately 'improves on' nature, his work may easily look mannered or insipid. But if we look once more at Raphael's work, we see that he, at any rate, could idealize without any loss of vitality and sincerity in the result. There is nothing schematic or calculated in Galatea's loveliness. She is an inmate of a brighter world of love and beauty - the world of the classics as it appeared to its admirers in sixteenth- century Italy.

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Bindo Altoviti
c. 1515 (120 kB); Oil on wood, 60 x 44 cm (23 1/2 x 17 1/4 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington

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The School of Athens
Raphael, 15091510
Fresco, 500 × 770 cm
Vatican City, Apostolic Palace
The School of Athens
or "Scuola di Atene" in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1510 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens the second painting to be finished after La disputa.
바티칸의 교황 집무실 벽면에 그린 <아테나 학당>, 플라톤은 손으로 하늘을 가리키면서 영원히 변하지 않는 완전한 이데아의 세계에 대하여설면한다. 아리스토텔레스는 팔을 앞으로 뻗어서 지상을 가리키며 현실 세상을 살아가면서 인간들이 지켜야 할 도덕과 윤리의 중요성을 이야기한다. 이상을 추구하며 동시에 현실을 살아가는 지혜를 조화롭게 이것은 르네상스 예술가들의 정신적인 목표를 그리고 있다.
르네상스의 열린공간을 건축의 아치문을 통하여 보여주고, 성인과 같은 철학자들의 후광을 만들어주고 있다. 레오나르도 다비니치가 최후의 만찬에서 그러했던 것처럼.

Because it was positioned over the philosophical section of the library of Pope Julius II, The School of Athens shows the greatest philosophers, scientists and mathematicians of classical antiquity. Plato and Aristotle, the Greek philosophers that were considered most important, are standing in the center of the composition at the top of the steps. Plato is holding his Timaeus. Aristotle is carrying a copy of his Nichomachean Ethics. Their gestures correspond to their interests in the philosophical field — Plato is pointing upwards towards Heaven and Aristotle is gesturing towards the earth.

Diogenes is lying carefree on the steps before them to show his philosophical attitude: he despised all material wealth and the lifestyle associated with it. To the left, the man leaning on the block is Heraclites, meant to be Michelangelo. This figure was an afterthought: it was not in the original cartoon. In 1510, Raphael snuck into the Sistine Chapel to view Michelangelo’s work on the ceiling by candle light. He was so awed by the unfinished work that he added Michelangelo after the manner of his depiction of the Prophet Jeremiah, to show his respect for the artist.

Raphael's self portrait is at the far lower-right of the fresco, the young man with brown hair staring straight out at the audience. On the left of the painting a girl-like figure, dressed in white, is also staring out at the audience. It is thought to represent Hypatia of Alexandria. Romantic legend has it that the model was Raphael's love, Margherita. Other interpretations, however, claim that it is a portrait of the young Francesco Maria I della Rovere. One of Raphael's contemporary portraits appears to show the same androgynous figure from a similar angle.

The bracketted names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thought to have drawn his likenesses. 1: Zeno of Citium or Zeno of Elea? — 2: Epicurus — 3: Unknown — (Frederik II of Mantua?) 4: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? — ? 5: Averroes — ? 6: Pythagoras — ? 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? — ? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon? — ? 9: Hypatia — (Francesco Maria della Rovere or Raphael's mistress Margherita.) 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? — ? 11: Parmenides? — ? 12: Socrates — ? 13: Heraclitus — (Michelangelo). 14: Plato holding the Timaeus — ( Leonardo da Vinci). 15: Aristotle holding the Ethics — ? 16: Diogenes of Sinope — ? 17: Plotinus? — ? 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students — ( Bramante)? 19: Strabo or Zoroaster? — (Baldassare Castiglione or Pietro Bembo). 20: Ptolemy — ? R: Apelles — (Raphael). 21: Protogenes — (Il Sodoma or Perugino)[2].

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Raphael. The Annunciation (from the predella of the Coronation of the Virgin). c. 1503-1504. Oil on panel, transferred to canvas. Vaticano, Pinacoteca Apostolica Vaticano, Rome, Italy.
Posted by @artnstory Art&Story

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