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'History of Arts/Renaissance'에 해당되는 글 13건

  1. 2020.05.11 모나리자 르네상스 전성기
  2. 2020.05.04 르네상스 초기-산드로 보티첼리 (2)
  3. 2007.06.28 르네상스 건축

모나 리자
라 조콘다
Mrs. risa.
리자 아줌마

"프란체스코 델 조콘다" 라는 부르조아 의 부인인 "엘리자베타 (리자) 게라르디니"
막 아기를 잃은 후 산모의 모습이라 손이 부어있다. 여성성을 담은 동양 산수화 같은 배경의 표현은 생명 탄생의 물줄기를 암시하고 있다.

이 작품은 정말 모두가 다 알고 있다.
왜일까?
왜 유명한지는 다들 정확히 알고 있는 걸까?

1. 시점이다.
오른쪽과 왼쪽의 시점을 틀리게 함으로써 관객으로 하여금 눈높이를 움직이게 하였다.
2. 인물의 비대칭이다.
거의 모든작가들이 인물을 대칭으로 표현한다.
하지만 모든 인간들은 본인이 거울에 비춰진 얼굴을 봤을때
대칭이 아니라는 사실을 알 고 있다.
그것을 그대로 표현함으로써 좀더 사실적인 인물을 표현해냈다.
3. 인물의 눈매와 입매의 스푸마토 기법과 키아로스쿠로 기법이다.
정확하고 뚜렷한 필치를 피하고, 안개속에 싸인듯이 뿌옇고  자연스럽게 표현해냄으로써, 사진같지 않고 실제 살아있는 인물인 것 같은 착각을 불러일으킨다.
4.밀라노에서 피렌체로 돌아온 레오나르도 다빈치는 1503~1506년 50세 모나리자를 그렸다.
그는 모델이 어떤 여자이건간에 성모마리아처럼 그렸다.


Leonardo DA VINCI (b. 1452, Vinci, Republic of Florence [now in Italy]--d. May 2, 1519, Cloux, Fr.), Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper (1495-97) and Mona Lisa (1503-06) are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance. His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of his time.

Portrait of Mona Lisa (1479-1528), also known as La Gioconda, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo; 1503-06 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 77 x 53 cm (30 x 20 7/8 in); Musee du Louvre, Paris

This figure of a woman, dressed in the Florentine fashion of her day and seated in a visionary, mountainous landscape, is a remarkable instance of Leonardo's sfumato technique of soft, heavily shaded modeling. The Mona Lisa's enigmatic expression, which seems both alluring and aloof, has given the portrait universal fame.


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Reams have been written about this small masterpiece by Leonardo, and the gentle woman who is its subject has been adapted in turn as an aesthetic, philosophical and advertising symbol, entering eventually into the irreverent parodies of the Dada and Surrealist artists. The history of the panel has been much discussed, although it remains in part uncertain. According to Vasari, the subject is a young Florentine woman, Monna (or Mona) Lisa, who in 1495 married the well-known figure, Francesco del Giocondo, and thus came to be known as ``La Gioconda''. The work should probably be dated during Leonardo's second Florentine period, that is between 1503 and 1505. Leonardo himself loved the portrait, so much so that he always carried it with him until eventually in France it was sold to Fran?is I, either by Leonardo or by Melzi.

From the beginning it was greatly admired and much copied, and it came to be considered the prototype of the Renaissance portrait. It became even more famous in 1911, when it was stolen from the Salon Carr?in the Louvre, being rediscovered in a hotel in Florence two years later. It is difficult to discuss such a work briefly because of the complex stylistic motifs which are part of it. In the essay ``On the perfect beauty of a woman'', by the 16th-century writer Firenzuola, we learn that the slight opening of the lips at the corners of the mouth was considered in that period a sign of elegance. Thus Mona Lisa has that slight smile which enters into the gentle, delicate atmosphere pervading the whole painting. To achieve this effect, Leonardo uses the sfumato technique, a gradual dissolving of the forms themselves, continuous interaction between light and shade and an uncertain sense of the time of day.


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There is another work of Leonardo's which is perhaps even more famous than The Last Supper. It is the portrait of a Florentine lady whose name was Lisa, Mona Lisa. A fame as great as that of Leonardo's Mona Lisa is not an unmixed blessing for a work of art. We become so used to seeing it on picture postcards, and even advertisements, that we find it difficult to see it with fresh eyes as the painting by a real man portraying a real woman of flesh and blood. But it is worth while to forget what we know, or believe we know, about the picture, and to look at it as if we were the first people ever to set eyes on it. What strikes us first is the amazing degree to which Lisa looks alive. She really seems to look at us and to have a mind of her own. Like a living being, she seems to change before our eyes and to look a little different every time we come back to her. Even in photographs of the picture we experience this strange effect, but in front of the original in the Louvre it is almost uncanny. Sometimes she seems to mock at us, and then again we seem to catch something like sadness in her smile. All this sounds rather mysterious, and so it is; that is so often the effect of a great work of art. Nevertheless, Leonardo certainly knew how he achieved this effect, and by what means. That great observer of nature knew more about the way we use our eyes than anybody who had ever lived before him. He had clearly seen a problem which the conquest of nature had posed to artists - a problem no less intricate than the one of combining correct drawing with a harmonious composition. The great works of the Italian Quattrocento masters who followed the lead given by Masaccio have one thing in common: their figures look somewhat hard and harsh, almost wooden. The strange thing is that it clearly is not lack of patience or lack of knowledge that is responsible for this effect. No one could be more patient in his imitation of nature than Van Eyck; no one could know more about correct drawing and perspective than Mantegna. And yet, for all the grandeur and impressiveness of their representations of nature, their figures look more like statues than living beings. The reason may be that the more conscientiously we copy a figure line by line and detail by detail, the less we can imagine that it ever really moved and breathed. It looks as if the painter had suddenly cast a spell over it, and forced it to stand stock-still for evermore, like the people in The Sleeping Beauty. Artists had tried various ways out of this difficulty. Botticelli, for instance, had tried to emphasize in his pictures the waving hair and the fluttering garments of his figures, to make them look less rigid in outline. But only Leonardo found the true solution to the problem. The painter must leave the beholder something to guess. If the outlines are not quite so firmly drawn, if the form is left a little vague, as though disappearing into a shadow, this impression of dryness and stiffness will be avoided. This is Leonardo's famous invention which the Italians call sfumato- the blurred outline and mellowed colors that allow one form to merge with another and always leave something to our imagination.

If we now return to the Mona Lisa, we may understand something of its mysterious effect. We see that Leonardo has used the means of his 'sfumato' with the utmost deliberation. Everyone who has ever tried to draw or scribble a face knows that what we call its expression rests mainly in two features: the corners of the mouth, and the corners of the eyes. Now it is precisely these parts which Leonardo has left deliberately indistinct, by letting them merge into a soft shadow. That is why we are never quite certain in what mood Mona Lisa is really looking at us. Her expression always seems just to elude us. It is not only vagueness, of course, which produces this effect. There is much more behind it. Leonardo has done a very daring thing, which perhaps only a painter of his consummate mastery could risk. If we look carefully at the picture, we see that the two sides do not quite match. This is most obvious in the fantastic dream landscape in the background. The horizon on the left side seems to lie much lower than the one on the right. Consequently, when we focus on the left side of the picture, the woman looks somehow taller or more erect than if we focus on the right side. And her face, too, seems to change with this change of position, because, even here, the two sides do not quite match. But with all these sophisticated tricks, Leonardo might have produced a clever piece of jugglery rather than a great work of art, had he not known exactly how far he could go, and had he not counterbalanced his daring deviation from nature by an almost miraculous rendering of the living flesh. Look at the way in which he modelled the hand, or the sleeves with their minute folds. Leonardo could be as painstaking as any of his forerunners in the patient observation of nature. Only he was no longer merely the faithful servant of nature. Long ago, in the distant past, people had looked at portraits with awe, because they had thought that in preserving the likeness the artist could somehow preserve the soul of the person he portrayed. Now the great scientist, Leonardo, had made some of the dreams and fears of these first image-makers come true. He knew the spell which would infuse life into the colors spread by his magic brush.



Posted by @artnstory art holic

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Timeline: The Early Renaissance

르네상스는 "부활"을 의미하며 르네상스 미술의 주제는 고대그리스로마신화, 종교화, 그리고 초상화와 작가의 개성이 담겨있는 상상력을 바탕으로 한 다양한 주제들이 보여진다,


Among the Florentine artists of the second half of the fifteenth century who strove for a solution to this question was the painter Sandro Botticelli (1446-1510). One of his most famous pictures represents not a Christian legend but a classical myth - the birth of Venus.


Original name ALESSANDRO DI MARIANO FILIPEPI (b. 1445, Florence [Italy]--d. May 17, 1510, Florence), Florentine early Renaissance painter whose Birth of Venus (c. 1485) and Primavera (1477-78) are often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance. His ecclesiastical commissions included work for all the major churches of Florence and for the Sistine Chapel in Rome. His name is derived from his elder brother Giovanni, a pawnbroker, who was called Il Botticello ("The Little Barrel").

Although he was one of the most individual painters of the Italian Renaissance, Sandro Botticelli remained little known for centuries after his death. Then his work was rediscovered late in the 19th century by a group of artists in England known as the Pre-Raphaelites.

Born Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi in Florence in 1445, Botticelli was apprenticed to a goldsmith. Later he was a pupil of the painter Fra Filippo Lippi. He spent all his life in Florence except for a visit to Rome in 1481-82. There he painted wall frescoes in the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican.

In Florence, Botticelli was a protege of several members of the powerful Medici family. He painted portraits of the family and many religious pictures, including the famous The Adoration of the Magi. The most original of his paintings are those illustrating Greek and Roman legends. The best known are the two large panels Primavera and The Birth of Venus.


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비너스의 탄생
The Birth of Venus
c. 1485-86; painted for the villa of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici at Castello; Tempera on canvas, 172.5 x 278.5 cm; now in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence


메디치 가문의 로렌초 디  피에르 프란체스코가 자신의 결혼을 기념하여 주문 제작.
왼편은 독수리 날개를 한 바람(서풍)의 신 제피로스와 꽃의 요정 클로리스 오른편은 과실나무의 요정 포포나. 조개껍질에 탄 사랑과 아름다움의 신 비너스= 아프로디테는 바람에 실려 성스러운 키프로스 섬( 비너스의 탄생지로 전해지는 지중해 동부 파포스의 해변) 에 도착. 비너스의 탄생을  축복하는 꽃잎이 흩날리고 있는 모습. 비너스의 실제 모델은  피렌체의 가장 아름다운 여인 "시모네다 베스 풋"

 


The classical poets had been known all through the Middle Ages, but only at the time of the Renaissance, when the Italians tried so passionately to recapture the former glory of Rome, did the classical myths become popular among educated laymen. To these men, the mythology of the admired Greeks and Romans represented something more than gay and pretty fairy-tales. They were so convinced of the superior wisdom of the ancients that they believed these classical legends must contain some profound and mysterious truth. The patron who commissioned the Botticelli painting for his country villa was a member of the rich and powerful family of the Medici. Either he himself, or one of his learned friends, probably explained to the painter what was known of the way the ancients had represented Venus rising from the sea. To these scholars the story of her birth was the symbol of mystery through which the divine message of beauty came into the world. One can imagine that the painter set to work reverently to represent this myth in a worthy manner. The action of the picture is quickly understood. Venus has emerged from the sea on a shell which is driven to the shore by flying wind-gods amidst a shower of roses. As she is about to step on to the land, one of the Hours or Nymphs receives her with a purple cloak. Botticelli has succeeded where Pollaiuolo failed. His picture forms, in fact, a perfectly harmonious pattern. But Pollaiuolo might have said that Botticelli had done so by sacrificing some of the achievements he had tried so hard to preserve. Botticelli's figures look less solid. They are not so correctly drawn as Pollaiuolo or Masaccio's. The graceful movements and melodious lines of his composition recall the Gothic tradition of Ghiberti and Fra Angelico, perhaps even the art of the fourteenth century - works such as Simone Martini's Annunciation.

Botticelli's Venus is so beautiful that we do not notice the unnatural length of her neck, the steep fall of her shoulders and the queer way her left arm is hinged to the body. Or, rather, we should say that these liberties which Botticelli took with nature in order to achieve a graceful outline add to the beauty and harmony of the design because they enhance the impression of an infinitely tender and delicate being, wafted to our shores as a gift from Heaven.

This secular work was painted onto canvas, which was a less expensive painting surface than the wooden panels used in church and court pictures. A wooden surface would certainly be impractical for a work on such a scale. Canvas is known to have been the preferred material for the painting of non-religious and pagan subjects that were sometimes commissioned to decorate country villas in 15th-century Italy.



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The masterworks Primavera (c. 1478) and The Birth of Venus (c. 1485) were both seen by Vasari at the villa of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici at Castello in the mid-16th century, and until recently it was assumed that both works were painted specifically for the villa. Recent scholarship suggests otherwise: the Primavera was painted for Lorenzo's townhouse in Florence, and The Birth of Venus was commissioned by someone else for a different site. By 1499 both had been installed at Castello.[2]

In these works the influence of Gothic realism is tempered by Botticelli's study of the antique. But if the painterly means may be understood, the subjects themselves remain fascinating for their ambiguity. The complex meanings of these paintings continue to receive scholarly attention, mainly focusing on the poetry and philosophy of humanists who were the artist's contemporaries. The works do not illustrate particular texts; rather, each relies upon several texts for its significance. Of their beauty, characterized by Vasari as exemplifying "grace", and by John Ruskin as possessing linear rhythm, there can be no doubt.


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프리마베라 - 봄
La Primavera
1477-78; "Allegory of Spring"; 315 x 205 cm; painted for the villa of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici at Castello
now in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence

정신적 사랑(삼미신)과 육체적 사랑(클로리스로 유혹하는 제피로스)을 동시에 보여주고 있다.
 그림의 오른쪽에서 부터 서풍,  님프 클로리스(Chloris),
꽃과 봄의 여신 플로라(Flora), 가운데 미의 여신 비너스(Vinus),춤을 추고 있는 세명의 카리테스(charites), 비너스의 머리위에 눈을 가리고 사랑의 화살을 쏘고 있는 비너스의 아들 큐피드(Cupid), 마지막으로 봄의 제전을 악으로 부터 보호하며 봄의 개화를 알려주는 쥬피터의 아들 신의 전령 머큐리(Mercury)가 이그림의 주요 인물로 그려집니다.
그들의 머리위에는 신화 속에서 비너스가 탄생할 때 축하의 의미로 나무에 열린 황금열매가  표현되어 있습니다.

클로리스(Chloris)
연두색,연한 녹색,신선함,푸릇한 새싹등을 뜻한다고 합니다.
로마신화에서 그녀는 봄의 여신 플로라가 되기 전의 님프로 표현됩니다.
한가득 입김을 머금은 서풍의 신 제피로스에 의해 그녀는 봄을 다스리는 전능을 얻게 됩니다. 그녀는 사실 페보니우스에게 납치되어 그와 결혼을 했는데요. 그들 사이에서  과일을 뜻하는 카포스(Karpos)입니다. 그녀가 말을 하면 그녀의 입김은 데이지와, 달맞이꽃,콘플라워등 봄에 피는 아름다운 꽃들로 뒤바뀝니다.

플로라(Flora)
클로리스의 옆에 표현되어 있는 플로라는 클로리스가 꽃의 여신으로 변신하는 과정을 나타낸 것입니다. 자상하게 미소를 짖고 있는 그녀는 온갖 아름다운꽃봉우리로 단장된 드레스를 입고있습니다. 그녀를 납치하여 결혼한 제피로스 뒷날 그의 행동을 후회하고 그녀를 봄의 여신으로 만들어 주고 그녀가 항상 아름답게 가꿀수 있는 정원을 선물합니다. 가운데 다른인물들 보다 조금 물러서서 중심을 잡고 있는 비너스는 봄의 영광과 정신적인 쾌락을 약속하며조용히 미소짖고 있고 그녀의 위에는 어린아이의 모습으로 나타난 큐피드가 눈을 가  리고 아무나 맞힐세라 사랑의 화살을 조준하고 있네요.

카리테스(CHARITES)
미와 사랑의 여신 비너스를 모시는 세명의 그레이스(Three Graces) 카리테스(CHARITES)는 따사로운 봄을 맞이하며 정성을 다해 춤을 춥니다. 그녀들은 세명의 자매로써 첫째 달리아는 좋은 원기,만찬,축제(Good Cheer, Festivities),  둘째 유프라서니(Euphrosyne)는 기쁨과 행복의 웃음을(Mirth,joyful life),  막내 아글라에아는 아름다움(beauty,splendor, brilliant, shining on-e)을 상징합니다. 마지막 왼쪽에 자리잡은 신들의 메신저 머큐리의 존재는 여성이 주가 된 그림의 구도를 오른쪽의 남성이미지의 제피로스와 함께 대칭을 이룸으로써 균형을 줍니다. 머큐리와 날개달린 신발과 더불어 그를 상징하는 지팡이 커두시우스 그는 모든 악이 자리 잡지 못하도록 그의 지팡이 커두시우스(caduceus-두 마리의 뱀이 감긴 꼭대기에 두 날개가 있는 지팡이;평화, 의술의 상징;미육군 의무대의 휘장)를 하늘높이 치켜들고 봄의 입구를 신의 길을 지키고 있다.

 




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Pallas/Camilla and the Centaur. c.1482-1483. Tempera on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.

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Judith's Return to Bethulia.
c.1469-1470. Tempera on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

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Venus and Mars. 1483. Tempera on panel. National Gallery, London, UK


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Mystic Nativity. 1500. Tempera on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

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Cestello Annunciation. 1489-1490. Tempera on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

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The Annunciation.
Two panels. 1490s. Tempera on panel. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia.

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The Virgin and Child with the Infant St. John. After 1500. Tempera on panel. Dresden Gallery, Dresden, Germany.



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Portrait of Dante. c.1495. Tempera on canvas. Private collection, Geneva, Switzerland.

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The Encounter with the Damned in the Pine Forest.
1482-1483. Tempera on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

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The Infernal Hunt. 1482-1483. Tempera on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

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The Banquet in the Pine Forest. 1482-1483. Tempera on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

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The Wedding Banquet. 1482-1483. Tempera on panel. Private collection, Florence, Italy.


 






Paolo Uccello. The Hunt in the Forest. c. 1465-70. Oil on canvas. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK. 숲속의 사냥 은 우첼로의 작품으로 보티첼리와 같은 동시대 작가로 비교해 볼 만한 작품이다.

 

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  1. @artnstory art holic 2009.10.15 01:06 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    고대 그리스 로마신화를 바탕으로 한 작품들을 메디치 가문으로 부터 의뢰받아 신비롭고 아름다운 작품들이 탄생하였다.

  2. @artnstory art holic 2009.10.16 14:13 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    The Encounter with the Damned in the Pine Forest. The Infernal Hunt. 이 작품은 당시 르네상스의 작품에서 디자인적인 요소를 강하게 드러내고있다. 나무의 반복된 수직선은 후에 현대작가들에게서 보여진다.

Fillippo Brunelleschi:1377~1466   필리포 브루넬레스키 설계<피렌체 대성당의 돔>1420~36년경
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초기 르네상스 교회당  Pazzi 예배당  1430년경
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내부의 형태와 비례를 강조하기 위해 벽기둥 설치, 수학적인 법칙 이용
르네상스 건축가들은 건축물의 아름다움과 조화를 결정하는 요소는 수학에 달려있다고 믿었다.


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Masaccio (Italian, 1401-1428)
The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John and Two Donors. 1426-28. Fresco. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.
수학적인 법칙에 근거해서 그려진 최초의 그림. 성모가 십자가에 못박힌 아들을 손으로 가리키는 단순한 제스처는 유일한 움직임. 웅변적이고 인상적이다. 지하 납골소.






Leon Battista Alberti :1404~72
레온 바티스타 알베르티 <르네상스 교회: 만토바의 성 안드레아 대성당>1460년경
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피렌체의 Rucellai 대저택    1460년경
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루앙 법원 1482 플랑부아양 고딕 양식
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케임브리지 킹스 칼리지 예배당 1446 수직양식
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Donato Bramante:1444~1514
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로마몬토리오의 성 베드로 대성당 내  Tempietto 작은신전
예배당의 작은 건물과 장식적인 열주는 고대 신전들이 그러하듯이 완벽한 조화를 이루고 있다. 




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 야코포 산소비노<산마르코 대성당의 도서관>1536년 르네상스 전성기  베네치아 





르네상스(Renaissance)
라는 말은 재생 또는 부활을 의미한다. 이탈리아인들이 말하는 부흥은 ‘위대했던 로마’의 재생이라는 생각과 밀접한 관계를 가진다. 르네상스는 단테와 조토의 출생지인 부유한 상업도시 피렌체를 중심으로 성장했으며, 메디치와 파치 가문과 같은 도시귀족이 생겨났다. 중세 시대는 교회라는 건축 안에 회화와 조각이 포함되었다면, 이 시대에는 건축, 조각, 회화가 독립적으로 발전하였다.

 건축은 고대 그리스로마 양식과 새롭고 근대적인 양식의 절충을, 조각은 중세에 금기되었던 누드가 다시 등신대 크기로 재생하였고,  회화에서는 사실주의가 부각되기 시작하였다.

 르네상스 초기에 건축가 필립포 브루넬레스키와 알베르티는 수학적인 법칙에 따라 내부의 형태와 비례를 강조하였다. 이러한 수학적인 법칙에 의해서 그려진 회화로는 마사초의<성 삼위 일체. 성모, 성요한과 헌납자들>그림이 있다.

 

Posted by @artnstory art holic

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