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History of Arts/19C

후기인상주의 - 고흐

by art holic 2020. 5. 4.
칼뱅주의- 프랑스의 프로테스탄트 사상에 심취하여 중세에 예수그리스도의 말씀을 전달하기 위하여 그림으로 표현하듯이. 벨기에 남부탄광촌 그들에게 빛을 주기 위해 가난한  일들의 삶을 표현, 30세에 그림 시작,.아빠는 목사.
SIAN 에게 영감을 받음. 파리에서 화상인 테오에게 그림을 보내지만, 어둡고 침울해서 팔 수 없는 작품들.


Gogh, Vincent (Willem) van
(b. March 30, 1853, Zundert, Neth.--d. July 29, 1890, Auvers-sur-Oise, near Paris), generally considered the greatest Dutch painter and draughtsman after Rembrandt. With Cézanne and Gauguin the greatest of Post-Impressionist artists. He powerfully influenced the current of Expressionism in modern art. His work, all of it produced during a period of only 10 years, hauntingly conveys through its striking colour, coarse brushwork, and contoured forms the anguish of a mental illness that eventually resulted in suicide. Among his masterpieces are numerous self-portraits and the well-known The Starry Night (1889).  10년도 안되는 동안 800여점


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Flower Beds in Holland
1883 (150 Kb); 48.9 x 66 cm

On the Outskirts of Paris. 1887. Oil on canvas. Private collection.

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Cypresses
1889 (260 Kb); Oil on canvas, 93.3 x 74 cm (36 3/4 x 29 1/8 in); The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Wheatfield with Cypresses

Sept. 1889 reduction of June 1889 original; Oil on canvas, 51.5 x 65 cm; Private Collection

The last two years of Van Gogh's life were productive of marvellous pictures--painted though they were under constant strain. During this period he travelled far from his Impressionist starting-point in Paris. The equable balance of Impressionism was replaced by an emotional turbulance. Calm objectivity gave way to the expression of intense feeling. Yet there remains an evolution that can be traced back to the time when his brother first showed him works by Monet, Pissarro, Degas and Cézanne and when he first began to apply separate patches of color in the manner of Seurat. The freedom and variety in the use of the brush that counted for so much in Impressionist painting still belong to his later work, though exaggerated and distorted by the agitations and difficult circumstances that followed his quarrel with Gauguin. The Neo-Impressionist juxtaposition of near-primary colors was also exaggerated to a point of intense brilliance.

This picture was painted at St Rémy in Provence after he had entered the asylum there in May 1889 and was one of three versions. It is possibly the painting he refers to in a letter to Theo written towards the end of June with `a cornfield very yellow' and the cypress--a tree just then `always occupying my thoughts' that was `a splash of black in a sunny landscape'. The whirling brushstrokes of the sky may at first give the disturbing suggestion of mental imbalance and violence beyond control, but the longer the picture is considered the more consistent it appears as a whole in the multitude of curves that twist and turn and repeat themselves throughout. Nor is it to be supposed that Van Gogh was incapable of anything else. The flame-like form of the cypress sets a key that is followed through with a pervading vibration that represents a sustained effort.

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Road with Cypress and Star
1890 (290 Kb); Oil on canvas, 92 x 73 cm (36 1/4 x 28 3/4 in); Rijksmuseum Kroller-Muller, Otterlo

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Wheat Field Under Threatening Skies
1890 (260 Kb); Oil on canvas, 50.5 x 100.5 cm; Vincent van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

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Self-Portrait Dedicated to Paul Gauguin
1888 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 60.5 x 49.4 cm (23 3/4 x 19 1/2 in); Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

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Self-Portrait in front of the Easel
1888 (200 Kb); 65 x 50.5 cm

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Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear
1889 (250 Kb); Oil on canvas, 60 x 49 cm; Courtauld Institute Galleries, London

In February 1888 van Gogh settled at Arles, where he painted more than 200 canvases in 15 months. During this time he sold no pictures, was in poverty, and suffered recurrent nervous crisis with hallucinations and depression. He became enthusiastic for the idea of founding an artists' co-operative at Arles and towards the end of the year he was joined by Gauguin. But as a result of a quarrel between them van Gogh suffered the crisis in which occured the famous incident when he cut off his left ear (or part of it), an event commemorated in his Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear (Courtauld Institute, London).

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Self-Portrait
1889 (250 Kb); Oil on canvas, 65 x 54 cm (25 1/2 x 21 1/4 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Self-Portrait
1889 (250 Kb); Oil on canvas, 65 x 54 cm (25 1/2 x 21 1/4 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Skull with Cigarette
1886 (80 Kb); 32.5 x 24 cm

<구두>는 그의 또 다른 자화상.

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The Potato Eaters
1885 (180 Kb); Oil on canvas, 81.5 x 114.5 cm; Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam
감자를 먹는 사람들.
그의 첫번 째 걸작. 32세 철학적 영감, 물감을 가득 묻힌 붓이 저절로 움직인 듯. 화가와 주제 사이의 완전한 일치감. 노동을 통해 그들의 손으로  정직하게 얻은 감자를 먹는 모습. 그는 후에 파리에서 인상주의 맛을 본 밝은 색채의 작품을 만든다.


 
From 1881 to 1885 van Gogh lived in the Netherlands, sometimes in lodgings, supported by his devoted brother Theo, who regularly sent him money from his own small salary. In keeping with his humanitarian outlook he painted peasants and workers, the most famous picture from this period being The Potato Eaters (Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam; 1885). Of this he wrote to Theo: `I have tried to emphasize that those people, eating their potatoes in the lamp-light have dug the earth with those very hands they put in the dish, and so it speaks of manual labour, and how they have honestly earned their food'. In 1885 van Gogh moved to Antwerp on the advice of Antoine Mauve (a cousin by marriage), and studied for some months at the Academy there. Academic instruction had little to offer such an individualist, however, and in February 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met Pissarro, Degas, Gauguin, Seurat, and Toulouse-Lautrec. At this time his painting underwent a violent metamorphosis under the combined influence of Impressionism and Japanese woodcuts, losing its moralistic flavour of social realism. Van Gogh became obsessed by the symbolic and expressive values of colors and began to use them for this purpose rather than, as did the Impressionists, for the reproduction of visual appearances, atmosphere, and light. `Instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I have before my eyes,' he wrote, `I use color more arbitrarily so as to express myself more forcibly'.


Vincent's Chair with Pipe.
December 1888. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK. 

고흐의 색은 파랑, 노랑- 도덕적인 순례자.


Gauguin's Chair with Books and Candle.December 1888. Oil on canvas. Vincent van Gogh Foundation, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
고갱의 빨 강, 초록 간질환자이면서 우울증.

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La chambre de Van Gogh à Arles (Van Gogh's Room at Arles)
1889 (200 Kb); Oil on canvas, 57 x 74 cm (22 1/2 x 29 1/3 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Vincent's Room, Arles
1888; Vincent Van Gogh Foundation, Amsterdam

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Starry Night over the Rhone
1888 (160 Kb); 72.5 x 92 cm

고흐의 <론강의 별이 빛나는 밤에>는 직접보면 별이 깜빡깜빡 하는 것처럼 느껴진다. 강에 비친 별빛도 물결이 되어 흔들흔들거리는 모습이 아름답다.  그 이유는 고흐의  강렬하고 빠른 붓터치 때문이다. 그리고 그 붓터치는 에너지를 전해준다.  

<별이 빛나는 밤에>에서 보여지는 구름의 움직임 달과 별의 반짝임을 고흐의 붓터치로 생생히 전달하고 있다. 그의 작품에 자주 등장하는  사이프러스 나무도 마치 계속 하늘로 뻗어올라 갈 것 같은 꿈틀거리는 생명력을 전달한다. 그는 조용한 사람이었지만, 그의 작품엔 그의 그림에 대한 열정이 담겨있어 감동적이다.

 


Gogh, Vincent van
The Starry Night(june1889 (210 Kb); Oil on Canvas, 72 x 92 cm (29 x 36 1/4 in); The Museum of Modern Art, New York

Gogh, Vincent (Willem) van (b. March 30, 1853, Zundert, Neth.--d. July 29, 1890, Auvers-sur-Oise, near Paris), generally considered the greatest Dutch painter and draughtsman after Rembrandt. With C?anne and Gauguin the greatest of Post-Impressionist artists. He powerfully influenced the current of Expressionism in modern art. His work, all of it produced during a period of only 10 years, hauntingly conveys through its striking colour, coarse brushwork, and contoured forms the anguish of a mental illness that eventually resulted in suicide. Among his masterpieces are numerous self-portraits and the well-known
The Starry Night was completed near the mental asylum of Saint-Remy, 13 months before Van Gogh's death at the age of 37. Vincent's mental instability is legend. He attempted to take Paul Gauguin's life and later committed himself to several asylums in hopes of an unrealized cure.

Van Gogh painted furiously and The Starry Night vibrates with rockets of burning yellow while planets gyrate like cartwheels. The hills quake and heave, yet the cosmic gold fireworks that swirl against the blue sky are somehow restful.

This painting is probably the most popular of Vincent's works.

Café Terrace at Night. September 1888. Oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo, Netherlands. 
<밤의 카페테라스> black을 사용하지 않고 blue, purple, green으로만 밤 풍경을 표현. 

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Irises (pink/gree)
May 1890; Oil on canvas, 73.7 x 92.1 cm; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Irises
1889 (280 Kb); Oil on canvas, 71 x 93 cm (28 x 36 3/4 in); Payson Gallery of Art, Portland, Maine (or Getty Museum, California)

Sunflowers. 1888. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.
노랑 벽, 꽃, 방, 밀밭, 태양 을 좋아한 고호, 노랑색에 그림에 관한  열정이 담겨있다.
해바라기는 시들어도 씨앗을 남긴다,

The vase with 12 sunflowers Still Life With Four Sunflowers
1887; Kroller-Müller Museum, Otterlo

해바라기의 죽음은 단순한 죽음이 아니라  불타는 별에서 떨어진 듯한 "죽어버린 자연"

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First Steps (after Millet)
1890 (250 Kb); Oil on canvas, 72.4 x 91.2 cm (28 1/2 x 35 7/8 in); The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Noon: Rest From Work (After Millet)

1889-90; Musée d'Orsay, Paris 

Branches of Almond tree in Bloom. Saint-Rémy.
February 1890. Oil on canvas. Vincent van Gogh Foundation, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.


The Dance Hall at Arles. 1888. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

Japonaiserie: Bridge in the Rain (after Hiroshige). September-October 1887. Vincent van Gogh Foundation, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Japonaiserie: Plum tree in Bloom (after Hiroshige). September-October 1887. Vincent van Gogh Foundation, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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