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'2020/04/02'에 해당되는 글 12건

  1. 2020.04.02 밀레 자연주의
  2. 2020.04.02 19 -낭만주의(터너) (1)
  3. 2020.04.02 19C- 자연주의
  4. 2020.04.02 19C- 신고전주의 (1)
  5. 2020.04.02 19C- 사실주의
  6. 2020.04.02 낭만주의- Dante Gabriel Rossetti(1828 –1882)
  7. 2020.04.02 오노레 도미에
  8. 2020.04.02 고야
  9. 2020.04.02 블레이크
  10. 2020.04.02 서양 문명의 발생 - 메소포타미아 (1)
밀레의 작품은 19세기 자연주의 작품이다.

이삭줍기

이삭을 줍는 아낙네들의 모습에서는 가시적으로 드러나는 노동의 이미지보다 무언가 성스러운 일을 하고 있는 고요함과 아름다운 자태가 느껴진다. 바로크 시대 얀 베르메르의 우유를 따르는 하녀 의 모습에서처럼
.

1857 (40 Kb)

Millet, Jean-Fran?is


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(1814-75) The son of a small peasant farmer of Gr?ille in Normandy, Millet showed a precocious interest in drawing, and arrived in Paris in 1838 to become a pupil of Paul Delaroche. He had to fight against great odds, living for long a life of extreme penury. He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1840, and married two years later. At this time, the main influences on him were Poussin and Eustache Le Sueur, and the type of work he produced consisted predominantly of mythological subjects or portraiture, at which he was especially adept (Portrait of a Naval Officer, 1845; Mus? des Beaux-Arts, Rouen).

His memories of rural life, and his intermittent contacts with Normandy, however, impelled him to that concern with peasant life that was to be characteristic of the rest of his artistic career. In 1848 he exhibited The Winnower (now lost) at the Salon, and this was praised by Th?phile Gautier and bought by Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, the Minister of the Interior. In 1849, when a cholera epidemic broke out in Paris, Millet moved to Barbizon on the advice of the engraver Charles-Emile Jacque (1813-94) and took a house near that of Th?dore Rousseau. Devoted to this area as a subject for his work, he was one of those who most clearly helped to create the Barbizon School. His paintings on rural themes attracted growing acclaim and between 1858 and 1859 he painted the famous
Ang?us (Mus? d'Orsay), which 40 years later was to be sold for the sensational price of 553,000 francs.

Although he was officially distrusted because of his real or imaginary Socialist leanings, his own attitude towards his chosen theme of peasant life was curiously ambivalent. Being of peasant stock, he tended to look upon farmworkers as narrow-minded and oblivious of beauty, and did not accept the notion that `honest toil' was the secret of happiness. In fact, his success partly stemmed from the fact that, though compared with most of his predecessors and, indeed, his contemporaries, he was a `Realist', he presented this reality in an acceptable form, with a religious or idyllic gloss. Nevertheless, he became a symbol to younger artists, to whom he gave help and encouragement. It was he who, on a visit to Le Havre to paint portraits, encouraged Boudin to become an artist, and his work certainly influenced the young Monet, and even more decidedly so Pissarro, who shared similar political inclinations.

Although towards the end of his life, when he started using a lighter palette and freer brushstrokes, his work showed some affinities with Impressionism, his technique was never really close to theirs. He never painted out-of-doors, and he had only a limited awareness of tonal values, but his draughtsmanship had a monumentality that appealed to artists such as Seurat and van Gogh, who was also enthralled by his subject-matter, with its social implications. Millet's career was greatly helped by Durand-Ruel.

만종

풍경과 인물을 떼어내도 2개의 완벽한 작품이 만들어질만한  명작이다.
생활고를 위한 노동의 모습이 아닌 경건한 분위기에서 고귀한 일을 하고 있는 젊은 부부의 모습이다.
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Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault

(1791-1824) 

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Insane , 1821-24; Oil on canvas. Museum Van Schoone, Kunsten, Gent. (140 Kb)

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The Raft of the "Medusa". 1818-1819. Oil on canvas. 490  x 720 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.


The Derby at Epson. 1821. Oil on canvas. 92 x 123 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.


Delacroix,Eugène, in full FERDINAND- VICTOR-EUGENE DELACROIX (b. April 26, 1798, Charenton-Saint-Maurice, Fr.--d. Aug. 13, 1863, Paris),

Liberty leading the People (90 Kb); Painted on 28 July 1830, to commemorate the July Revolution that had just brought Louis-Philippe to the French throne; Louvre.

시민을 이끄는 자유. 는 사모트라케의 니케처럼 승리를 상징.
 프랑스 국기를 든 쟌다르크 같은 여인은 최후의 심판에서  오른팔을 높이 쳐든 예수의 몸짓을 연상

his painting, which is a sort of political poster, is meant to celebrate the day of 28 July 1830, when the people rose and dethroned the Bourbon king. Alexandre Dumas tells us that Delacroix's participation in the rebellious movements of July was mainly of a sentimental nature. Despite this, the painter, who had been a member of the National Guard, took pleasure in portraying himself in the figure on the left wearing the top-hat. Although the painting is filled with rhetoric, Delacroix's spirit is fully involved in its execution: in the outstretched figure of Liberty, in the bold attitudes of the people following herm contrasted with the lifeless figures of the dead heaped up in the foreground, in the heroic poses of the people fighting for liberty, there is without a doubt a sense of full participation on the part of the artist, which led Argan to define this canvas as the first political work of modern painting.

1789년 프랑스 대혁명이 일어나면서 왕정이 종식. 나폴레옹이 물러나고 부르봉 왕가가 복권하면서 시민들은 1830년 7월 혁명을 일으킨다. 국왕 샤를 10세가 시민참정권과 언론 출판권을 제약한다는 정책을 발표하자 시민들의 분노 폭발.
결국 1848년 2월 시민혁명으로...,


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The Death of Sardanapal
1827 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 392 x 496 cm; Musee du Louvre, Paris
<사르다나팔의 죽음> 기원전 9세기 앗시리아를 지배했던 왕

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Arabian Horses Fighting in a Stable
1860 (160 Kb); Oil on canvas, 64.5 x 81 cm; Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Algerian Women in Their Apartments
1834 (170 Kb); Oil on canvas, (180 x 229 cm) (71 x 90 1/4"); Musee du Louvre, Paris
1832년 모로코 여행의 강렬한 인상. 유럽에서는 오래전에 사라진 고대의 세계가 그곳에서는 현재형으로 남아있기때문.  하렘은 여자들의 은밀한 규방을 의미. 

John Constable

(1776 - 1837)

Dedham Church and Vale.
1800. Pen, ink and watercolour on paper. Whitworth Art Gallery, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.



'His Majesty's Ship "Victory", Capt. E. Harvey, in the Memorable Battle of Trafalgar between two French Ships of the Line'.
1806. Watercolour on paper. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK.

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Turner, John Mallord William (1775-1851). One of the finest landscape artists was J.M.W. Turner, whose work was exhibited when he was still a teenager. His entire life was devoted to his art. Unlike many artists of his era, he was successful throughout his career.

Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in London, England, on April 23, 1775. His father was a barber. His mother died when he was very young. The boy received little schooling. His father taught him how to read, but this was the extent of his education except for the study of art. By the age of 13 he was making drawings at home and exhibiting them in his father's shop window for sale.

Turner was 15 years old when he received a rare honor--one of his paintings was exhibited at the Royal Academy. By the time he was 18 he had his own studio. Before he was 20 print sellers were eagerly buying his drawings for reproduction.

He quickly achieved a fine reputation and was elected an associate of the Royal Academy. In 1802, when he was only 27, Turner became a full member. He then began traveling widely in Europe.

Venice was the inspiration of some of Turner's finest work. Wherever he visited he studied the effects of sea and sky in every kind of weather. His early training had been as a topographic draftsman. With the years, however, he developed a painting technique all his own. Instead of merely recording factually what he saw, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic feelings.

As he grew older Turner became an eccentric. Except for his father, with whom he lived for 30 years, he had no close friends. He allowed no one to watch him while he painted. He gave up attending the meetings of the academy. None of his acquaintances saw him for months at a time. Turner continued to travel but always alone. He still held exhibitions, but he usually refused to sell his paintings. When he was persuaded to sell one, he was dejected for days.

In 1850 he exhibited for the last time. One day Turner disappeared from his house. His housekeeper, after a search of many months, found him hiding in a house in Chelsea. He had been ill for a long time. He died the following day--Dec. 19, 1851.

Turner left a large fortune that he hoped would be used to support what he called "decaying artists." His collection of paintings was bequeathed to his country. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

Although known for his oils, Turner is regarded as one of the founders of English watercolor landscape painting. Some of his most famous works are Calais Pier, Dido Building Carthage, Rain, Steam and Speed, Burial at Sea, and The Grand Canal, Venice.

빛으로 가득차있는 동적인 세계, 웅대한 자연의 가장 낭만적이고 숭고한 모습을 현란하고 화려한 세계로 표현.

Peace: Burial at Sea
1842; Oil on canvas, 86.9 x 86.6 cm; Clore Gallery for the Turner Collection, London

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Rain, Steam and Speed
1844; Oil on canvas, 90.8 x 121.9 cm; National Gallery, London

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Sunrise with Sea Monsters
c. 1845; Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 122 cm; Tate Gallery, London

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Sunrise with Sea Monsters (detail)

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Slavers throwing overboard the Dead and Dying - Typhon coming on ("The Slave Ship")
1840; Oil on canvas, 90.8 x 122.6 cm; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Snowstorm

1842; Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 122 cm

Staffa, Fingal's Cave

1832; Oil on canvas, 90.9 x 121.4 cm; Yale Center for British Art, New Haven

The Fighting "Temeraire" tugged to her last berth to be broken up

1838; Oil on canvas, 91 x 122 cm; National Gallery, London

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The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834
1835; Oil on canvas, 92 x 123 cm; Philadelphia Museum of Art

Ulysses deriding Polyphemus - Homer's Odyssey
1829; Oil on canvas, 132.5 x 203 cm; National Gallery, London

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Shade and Darkness - the Evening of the Deluge
1843; Oil on canvas, 78.5 x 78 cm; Tate Gallery, London

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Colour Beginning
1819; Watercolor, 22.5 x 28.6 cm; Tate Gallery, London

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Dido building Carthage; or the Rise of the Carthaginian Empire
1815; Oil on canvas, 155.5 x 232 cm; National Gallery, London

어렸을 때부터 느껴왔던 삶의 고통, 상처, 빈곤, 민중들의 희생. 누이의 죽음으로 정신병동에 간  터너의 엄마,
1800년대 초기 영국의 고통스런 현실을 화폭에 담는다. 심각한 실업문제, 나폴레옹 전쟁, 혼란 , 정치인이자 문학가인 월터 포커스의 노예무역 폐지에 동참.

강렬한 빛과 어둠. 혹한과 바람이 부는 겨울 풍경. 희망이라고는 보이지 않는 풍경.터너의 그림에서는 실체가 작아지고 나약한 인간을 표현. 산업혁명이 일어나면서부터 증기선을 그렸다.  1840년대 노예제 폐지로 인해 노예선을 그리며 말세의 풍경을 보여주는 작품을 하였다. 영국전통에서 벗어나 환각속의 ㅗ습을 표현하여 기이한 인물로 각인.
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  1. A 2014.04.09 17:31 Address Modify/Delete Reply



    컨스터블 건초마차- 1821 년 런던에서그린 작품 '한낮의 풍경, 전원적 평화
    고향 플랫포드 방앗간 근처. 노년의 컨스터블 집 연기로 그가 살고있다는 걸 암시
    평화로운 마을에서 말을 쉬게하는 애정.
    맑고 푸른 빛의 절대성, 원초적 휴머니즘 이 뭔지 보여준다. 삶의 참의미
    새로운 프랑스 낭만주의 영향

    터너. 역동적인 자연의 변화 순수한 색채와. 빛의변화 ( 비 증기 속력
    프랑스 혁명 에 고무되어 합리적인 정신보다 인간의 생생한 감정을
    전함 테메레르호. 1839
    프랑스와 겨룬 1805 트라팔가 해전 승리한 영국.
    ,증기선에 끌려 선박처리장으로 운반되어가는 전함의 무상. 장대한일몰과 낡은전함
    향수와 상실의 분위 전쟁과 평화 삶과 죽음, 과거와 미래, - 붉은 노을 배경으로 서정시처럼 배어난다.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

(1796-1875)

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Orpheus Leading Eurydice from the Underworld. 1861. Oil on canvas. 113 x 137. The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. A Morning. Dance of the Nymphs. Salon of 1850-51. 98 x 131 cm. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France, Deposit from the Louvre.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Landscape with a Lake. c. 1860-73. Oil on canvas. 53 x 65.5 cm. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Idylle. 1859. Oil on canvas. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille, France.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Memory of Montefontaine / Souvenir de Montefontaine. Salon of 1864. Oil on canvas. 65 x 89 cm. Louvre, Paris, France

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Woman with a Pearl. Oil on canvas. 70 x 55 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.

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Agostina. 1866. Oil on canvas. 130 x 95 cm. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

Woman in Blue. 1874. Oil on canvas. 80x 50.5 cm. Louvre, Paris, France


Millet, Jean-François(1814-75)

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Les Glaneuses

1857 (40 Kb)

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Angelus, 1859

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18세기 후반 폼페이와 헤르쿨라네움의 고고학 발굴은 신고전주의의 시작을 알렸다. 신고전주의는 예술부터 신화, 생활양식그리고 교육방식 까지 고대 그리스.로마의 문화를 받아들였으며, 이러한 고전문화의 부활은 예술영역에서 더욱 도드라졌다.


David, Jacques-Louis (1748-1825).
French painter, one of the central figures of Neoclassicism.

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Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris on 2 December 1804. 1808. Oil on canvas. 621 x 979 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.

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The Intervention of the Sabine Women.
1799. Oil on canvas. 385 x 522 cm. Louvre, Paris, France
당시 로마에 여인이 부족해서 사비니 여인들을 납치하고 그 후 사비니 군인들이 로마에게 복수하는 장면. 하지만, 이미 로마인의 아내가 되어있는 사비니 여인 헤르실레아는 그들의 형제아버지에게 화해할 것을 요청...

The Sabine Women Enforcing Peace by Running Between the Combatants
detail, 1794-99 (70 Kb); Louvre



Napoleon at St. Bernard  1800 (30 Kb)



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Napoleon in His Study
1812 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (80 1 / 4 x 49 1 / 4 in); The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
거의 탄 작은 촛불이 켜있는 늦은 밤, 나폴레옹은 여전히 서재애서 일하고 있는 듯한 모습.

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The Death of Socrates
1787 (100 Kb); Oil on canvas, 129.5 x 196.2 cm (51 x 77 1 / 4 in); The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Marat Assassinated
1793 (120 Kb); Oil on canvas, 165 x 128.3 cm (65 x 50 1 / 2 in); Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
다비드는 정치에 관심을 갖고 있고 그의 작품은 오싹하고 섬뜩한 느낌을 주었다.
장 폴 마라는 프랑스입장에서 봤을 땐 죽어마땅한 사람이지만, 마치 순교자인 듯 성자처럼 묘사하여 순결한 인물로 다시 . 거짓으로 감동을 주는 예술.
루이 16세가 죽자, 공화당 체제로 들어가면서 다비드도 입당하고 옆에는 마라 그리고 로베스피에로. 혁명정부의 참여를 거부하는 사람을 다 죽임.  하지만, 단지 예술가라 생각하여 후에도  처형되지 않았다.











Ingres, Jean - Auguste - Dominique (1780-1867). French painter, Montauban was born, a minor painter and sculptor, Jean - Marie - Joseph Ingres (1755 에서 1814 사이) son.


Jean - Auguste - Dominique Ingres.
Jupiter and Thetis. 1811. Canvas 51. Musée Granet, Aix - en - Provence, France.

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0 weeks of the portrait of De Broglie.
1853. Canvas 51. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

 

 

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Turkish bath
1862 (100 managers); oil timber, diameter 108cm (42 1 / 2 "); Musee Louvre later, in Paris on canvas

Jean - Auguste - Dominique Ingres. Le Grande odalisque. 1814. Canvas 51. Louvre Museum, Paris, France.

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Odalisque with slave
1840 (130 managers); 51 canvas mounted on panel 29 3 / 8 x 39 3 / 8, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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Source
1856 (120 managers), oil on canvas, 163 x 80 ㎝ (5 '4 1 / 4 "× 2'7 1 / 2"); d'Musee Orsay, Paris


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Valpincon bather
1808 (140 managers), oil on canvas, 146 x 97.5 ㎝ (57 1 / 2 x 41 1 / 8), the Louvre Museum, Paris

Ingres, Jean - Auguste - Dominique


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Ingres, Jean - Auguste - Dominique (1780-1867). French painter, Montauban was born, a minor painter and sculptor, Jean - Marie - Joseph Ingres (1755 에서 1814 사이) son.

Riviere
In 1796 he went to Paris, a fellow student of Gros in David's studio early in the Toulouse Academy of Education and Research. The 1801, winning the Grand Prix de Rome, France's economy by 1807, in Rome, he did not receive regular night due to the state. Every year he produced the first portrait. Two categories: a portrait of himself and his friends, a romantic spirit (Gilibert, Mus well? Ingres, Montauban 1805), and a portrait - like the enamel on the purity of line, characterized by what the client how to get pregnant in the fall (Mlle Rivi? E , Louvre Museum, Paris, 1805) dye. These early portraits, including the company's capabilities beyond the outline and the form has its own sense of beauty in their representation of the outline of the calligraphic line and you can notice. It is a picture of his life, Ingres through the essential basics of the features were formed.

Valpincon bather
1808 (140 managers), oil on canvas, 146 x 97.5 ㎝ (57 1 / 2 x 41 1 / 8), the Louvre Museum, Paris


In Rome, he can continue to run the portrait, which is one of their favorite things first bathers start years theme pictures (Valpin? N bath, the Louvre Museum, Paris, 1808). He's in Rome on a scholarship after his 4 years, mainly pencil portraits by members of the French colony of living was imported. But he also Acron over Napoleon's palace in Rome (Triumph Romulus two decorative painting, the Ecole de Beaux - Arts, Paris, 1812; and Ossian's Dream, and received substantial fees Mus? Ingres, 1813). He's in Rome, Florence, 1820, where he for 4 years, usually 13 years, Louis and his oath of Raphaelesque, Montauban Cathedral commissioned the remaining 24. Ingres's work is often critical of Paris 'Gothic' distortions, since 1824, when the salon's reputation, and criticized his own party's new leader set to study for a romantic I was surprised to find this file with. (See Delacroix's Massacre of Chios had the same hair.)

Ingres in Paris the next 10 days to stay in the formal award was successful, and neulsu rokhaetda years. The two big works: Homer's Apotheosis, running on the ceiling of the Louvre museum devoted much time during this period (), and install the martyred St. 1827 Symphorian (Hair, 1834) is the cathedral of Autun. However, when the latter was drawing heavily, he of the French School in Rome, he kept seven days allowed direct years of the post. The model of the administrators and teachers, the school's facilities has improved greatly, but geuneunyi era produced several major works. The 1841 tribute to France once again has returned as a champion of traditional values. He and his wife died in 1849, this hurts, but it costs in 1852, he made a successful second marriage, and the tremendous energy into their 80s, were working. One of his acknowledged masterpiece, the most delicate and Turkish Bath (Louvre, 1863), the last three dates of his life. In his death, he, more than 4,000 drawings) Montauban in their home town (a few pictures of his work, now they are leaving large artifacts in the museum bearing his name is.






Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

(1746-1828) 

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Francisco de Goya. The Colossus. c. 1810-12. Oil on canvas, 116 x 105 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Francisco de Goya. The Giant.
1818. Aquatint with butnishing (first state), 29.2 x 21 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA. 

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Group on a Balcony

c. 1810-15 (160 kB); Oil on canvas, 194.8 x 125.7 cm (76 3/4 x 49 1/2 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Note from Allen Strouse: Considered by most scholars to be a forgery


A Prison Scene. c. 1810-14. Zinc, 42.9 x 31.7 cm. Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, UK..

 

Francisco de Goya. The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid. 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 x 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
마드리드, 1808년 5월 3일, 캔버스에 유채, 260x345cm, 1814년, 프라도 미술관.
프랑스의 나폴레옹 군대는 스페인의 마드리드를 점령하고 스페인 궁전 앞 프란시페 피오 언덕에서 애국자들을 처형했다. 고야는 이 현장을 직접 목격하고 잔인한 장면을 그림으로 옮겼다.

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Saturn Devouring One of His Chidren. c. 1820-23. Oil on canvas, 146 x 83 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
크로노스 천왕성의 막내 아들 (하늘)와 가이아 (대지), 그래서, 그는 최초의 신의 세대 소유했다.
그는 그의 어머니, ovethrew 천왕성의 도움과 함께 하늘에 그의 자리를 대신했다. 마자 그는 세계의 자신의 여동생이 결혼을 크로노스 레아 통치자가되었다. 이후 그에게 그런 그는 자신의 아이 dethroned 될 것이라고 예언했다, 그는 모든대로 차례로 그들을 먹어 마자 그들이 태어 났 : Hestia (베스타), Demeter (세레스), 헤라 (주노), 하데스 (명왕성), 그리고 포세이돈 (넵튠). 오직 제우스 (목성) 그의 어머니 레아, 나중에 예언의 성취에 저장했다.
고대 로마 누스에서 토성과 발견했다.

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Charles IV and His Family. c. 1800. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.


Francisco de Goya. The Parasol. 1777. Oil on canvas, 104 x 152 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Francisco de Goya. The Nude Maja (La Maja Desnuda). c. 1799-1800. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Francisco de Goya. The Clothed Maja (La Maja Vestida). 1800-03. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

 

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  1. @artnstory Art&Story 2018.10.06 21:54 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    18세기 후반 폼페이와 헤르쿨라네움의 고고학 발굴은 신고전주의의 시작을 알렸다. 신고전주의는 예술부터 신화, 생활양식그리고 교육방식 까지 고대 그리스.로마의 문화를 받아들였으며, 이러한 고전문화의 부활은 예술영역에서 더욱 도드라졌다.

    출처: http://art.nstory.org/entry/고전주의?category=38360 [Art & Story]

Courbet, Gustave

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The Painter's Studio; A Real Allegory
1855 (170 kB); Oil on canvas, 361 x 598 cm (11' 10 1/4" x 19' 7 1/2"); Musee d'Orsay, Paris


Courbet, Gustave (1819-77). The painter Courbet started and dominated the French movement toward realism. Art critics and the public were accustomed to pretty pictures that made life look better than it was. Courbet, against much opposition, truthfully portrayed ordinary places and people.

Gustave Courbet was born on June 10, 1819, to a prosperous farming family in Ornans, France. He went to Paris in 1841, supposedly to study law, but he soon decided to study painting and learned by copying the pictures of master artists. In 1844 his self-portrait, Courbet with a Black Dog, was accepted by the Salon, an annual public exhibition of art sponsored by the influential Royal Academy.

In 1848 a political revolution in France foreshadowed a revolution in art, as people in the arts became more open to new ideas. Courbet's early work was exhibited successfully in 1849. That same year he visited his family in the countryside and produced one of his greatest paintings, The Stone-Breakers, followed by Burial at Ornans in 1850. Both were quite unlike the romantic pictures of the day because they showed peasants in realistic settings instead of the rich in glamorized situations. In 1855 he completed a huge canvas, The Artist's Studio, and, when it was refused for an important exhibition, Courbet boldly displayed his work himself near the exhibition hall.

Courbet visited Germany in 1856, where he was welcomed by the artistic community. By 1859 he was the undisputed leader of the new generation of the French realist movement. He painted all varieties of subjects, including admirable portraits and sensuous female nudes but, most of all, scenes of nature. His series of seascapes with changing storm clouds wafting overhead begun in 1865 had a great influence on impressionist painters.

Politically a socialist, Courbet took part in some revolutionary activities for which he was imprisoned for six months in 1871. He was also fined more than he could pay, so he fled to Switzerland, where he died in the town of La Tour-de-Peilz on Dec. 31, 1877.

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Daumier, Honoré (1808-79). French caricaturist, painter, and sculptor. In his lifetime he was known chiefly as a political and social satirist, but since his death recognition of his qualities as a painter has grown. In 1830, after learning the still fairly new process of lithography, he began to contribute political cartoons to the anti-government weekly Caricature. He was an ardant Republican and was sentenced to six months' imprisonment in 1832 for his attacks on Louis-Philippe, whom he represented as `Gargantua swallowing bags of gold extorted from the people'. On the suppression of political satire in 1835 he began to work for Charivari and turned to satire of social life, but at the time of the 1848 revolution he returned to political subjects. He is said to have made more than 4,000 lithographs, wishing each time that the one he had just made could be his last. In the last years of his life he was almost blind and was saved from destitution by Corot.

Daumier's paintings were probably done for the most part fairly late in his career. Although he was accepted four times by the Salon, he never exhibited his paintings otherwise and they remained practically unknown up to the time of an exhibition held at Durand-Ruel's gallery in 1878, the year of his death. The paintings are in the main a documentation of contemporary life and manners with satirical overtones, although he also did a number featuring Don Quixote as a larger-than-life hero. His technique was remarkably broad and free. As a sculptor he specialized in caricature heads and figures, and these too are in a very spontaneous style. In particular he created the memorable figure of `Ratapoil' (meaning `skinned rat'), who embodied the sinister agents of the government of Louis-Philippe. A similar political type in his graphic art was `Robert Macaire', who personified the unscrupulous profiteer and swindler.

In the directness of his vision and the lack of sentimentality with which he depicts current social life Daumier belongs to the Realist school of which Courbet was the chief representative. As a caricaturist he stands head and shoulders above all others of the 19th-century. He had the gift of expressing the whole character of a man through physiognomy, and the essence of his satire lay in his power to interpret mental folly in terms of physical absurdity. Although he never made a commercial success of his art, he was appreciated by the discriminating and numbered among his friends and admirers Delacroix, Corot, Forain, and Baudelaire. Degas was among the artists who collected his works.

Honore Daumier, a French artist, was deeply interested in people, especially the underprivileged. In Third-Class Carriage he shows us, with great compassion, a group of people on a train journey. We are especially concerned with one family group, the young mother tenderly holding her small child, the weary grandmother lost in her own thoughts, and the young boy fast asleep. The painting is done with simple power and economy of line. The hands, for example, are reduced to mere outlines but beautifully drawn. The bodies are as solid as clay, their bulk indicated by stressing the essential and avoiding the nonessential. These are not portraits of particular people but of mankind.

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The Third-Class Carraige
1863-65 (150 Kb); Oil on canvas, 65.4 x 90.2 cm (25 3/4 x 35 1/2 in); The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Don Quixote and the Dead Mule
1867 (180 Kb); 132.5 x 54.5 cm, Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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The Uprising
c. 1860 (190 Kb); Oil on canvas, 87.6 x 113 cm (34 1/2 x 44 1/2 in); The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.

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The Burden (The Laundress)
c. 1850-53 (110 Kb); Oil on canvas, 130 x 98 cm (51 1/8 x 38 5/8 in); The Hermitage, St. Petersburg; No. 3K 1500. Formerly collection Gerstenberg/Scharf, Berlin



Honore Daumier. Gargantua. 1831. Lithography. State 2. Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Paris, France.

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Manet, Edouard

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The Picnic ("Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe").
1862-1863. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.81 x 101 cm

풀밭위의 식사
마네의 또하나의 시끄러운 문제작.세명이 풀밭위에 모여앉아 식사를 하고있다. 근데 이여인네가 옷을 벗고 있다는 게 문제다. 또, 이 여인의 눈빛 또한 올랭피아에서와 마찬가지로 뻔뻔하게 대중을 바라보고 있다는 점이다. 다른 두남자 역시 다른 곳에 시선을 두고 서로 조화롭지 않은 손놀림까지 모두 따로 놀고 있다는 점이 재밌는 사실이다.  이 작품은 지로르지오네의 전원의 연주와 라파엘로의 파리스의 심판을 패러디한 작품이다.


Edouard Manet. Women at the Races. 1864-1865. Oil on canvas. Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, USA.

Berthe Morisot. 1872. Oil on canvas. Private collection.

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Olympia올랭피아
1863 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 130.5 x 190 cm (51 3/8 x 74 3/4 in) Musee d'Orsay, Paris

19세기 중반 오스만 시장으로 인해 파리는 빛의도시로, 물랭루즈 등장.
상류층을 상대하는 고급  매춘부가 시작되면서 누드모델 등장.
완성된 작품은 어김없이 요정이나 신화적인 이미지의 여신 모습.
 이 작품에서는 그 전 누드화의 성스러움과 부끄러움을 전혀 찾아볼 수 없다.
너무나 평범하고 아름답지 않은 보통의 여인을 그려넣은 것.
그리고, 창백하리만치 하얀 피부.
평면적이게 보이는 넓은 붓터치.
전체적으로 나타나는 화이트와 블랙의 조화.
마네가 드러내고자하는 이원론적인 사고가 여기서도 유감없이 색의 대비로 이루어지고 있다.
암고양이는 프랑스 은어로 여성의 성기를 가리킨다.
올랭피아의 고객으로부터 배달된 꽃,
당시 불법매춘을 단속하는 경찰, 부르주아의 위선은 심각, 그녀가 당신을 바라보고 있는 것은
너희들의 현실을 똑바로 바라보라는 뜻.
대중, 즉 이 그림을 바라보고 있는 어떤이라도 비웃어주는 듯한 도전적인 눈빛.
마네는 거장들의 작품을 패러디 한 것으로 유명하다.
이 작품은 타치아노의 오달리스크를 패러디한 작품이다.


A Bar at the Folies-Bergère. 1882. Oil on canvas. Courtauld Institute Galleries, London, UK.

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The Fifer. 1866. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

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The Balcony. 1868. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.



Portrait of Mme. Manet on a Blue Sofa. c. 1874. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

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The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico.
1867-1868. Oil on canvas. Staatliche Kunsthalle, Mannheim, Germany.

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Portrait of Emile Zola. 1867-1868. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.마네의 작품은 당시 파리의 모습을 비난하는 그림이다.
당시 '에밀졸라' 만이 그의 작품을 호평하는 글을 써낸다, 아무조건없이...
1863년까지 낙선하여 누드화를 포기하고 <피리부는 소년>을 그렸으나 역시 낙선.
팔리지 않고 쌓여만가는 작품 들,
전통적인 부드러운 명암법 포기하고, 강하고 거친 대조를 추구하였다.
폴 뒤랑뤼엘 의 뒷받침- 인상파화가들의 작품을 사들이고, 나다르 스튜디오에서 인상파 1회. 하지만, 냉담한 반응, 뉴욕서 전시 성공.






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Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Ecce Ancilla Domini ("The Annunciation"). 1850. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.
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고야

History of Arts/19C 2020. 4. 2. 11:19 |

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블레이크

History of Arts/19C 2020. 4. 2. 11:19 |




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세계 4 대 문명은 메소포타 미아, 이집트, 인더스, 황하에서 시작되었다. 그 중, 서양의 지리적 위치에있는 메소포타 미아와 이집트를 훑어보기로한다.

메소포타 미아 문명은 "한 알의 밀"로 시작되었다. 말 그대로 밀농사에서 비롯되었다. 지금과는 틀린 두 개의 물줄기 (티그리스 & 유프라테스 강 ')를 중심으로 두 강 사이의 땅이란 의미다. 메소포타 미아는 당시 농경 생활을하는 수메르 인이 주축이 된  "우르"(지금의 이라크 지역으로 사막 한 가운데에 자리잡고있다.) 지역으로 아카드, 바빌론, 앗시리아와 같은 크고 작은 마을이 번창 하였다.

메소포타미아 문명은 과학, 수학, 법, 철학, 그리고, 인류 최초로 문자를 사용하였고, 경제 발달의 증거자료인 문서를 이용 하였다. 이 때문에 메소포타미아를 "문명 의 요람"이라 일컫는다 또한, 그들은 메소포타 미아의 현존하는 유일한 자료인 3800 년 전에 쓰여진 인류 최초의 함무라비 법전을 최초로 성문화 하였다. 법전 뒷면 196 조항에는 우리가 많이 들어왔던 "눈에는 눈" 282 조항에는 결혼, 상속, 상거래, 매매 계약, 복지 정책까지이 사회는 철저히 법을 바탕으로 이루어졌다.

수메르 인들의 인생 철학은 '우르 크의 왕'조차도 죽으면 흙으로 돌아간다는 생명의 유한성을 긍정하고 현재 삶에 치중하여 최대한 누리는 삶을 선호 하였다.
메소포타 미아 문명의 자취는 글에서만 유츄할 수 밖에 없다.

"인생의 기쁨 그 이름은 맥주"
"결혼은 기쁜 거, 그러나 이혼은 더더욱 기쁜 거"
"인간은 누구나 죽는다 그러니 쓰자, 그러나 금방 죽지 않는다 그러니 저축도하자"
현세를 중시했던 이들은 지금의 우리 모습과 별반 차이가 없다는 것이 놀라울 뿐이다.

지구 라트는 4 층으로 달의 신 "난나"를 모시는 신전으로 4100년전 모습으로 복구되었다. 대피처 역할을 한 지구 라트의 하단은 자연 아스 팔 트인 역청으로 처리하여 방수성이 뛰어나 범람 ( '폭풍과 폭우가 전쟁을 하는것 같았다'는 글귀 발견)에 의해 붕괴되는 것을 막을 수 있었다.
건축의 시작이라 할 수있는 바벨탑과 공중 정원은 하늘에 이르려는 인간의 오만 함의 상징으로 비추어진다. 재료가 진흙을 햇볕에 말려 구운 벽돌로 만들어 졌기 때문에 지금은 소멸되었다. 당시 그들의 기후적 조건으로 석재를 구할 수 없었으므로 1563 년 브뤼겔의 바벨탑 작품에서 그 흔적을 찾아볼 수있다.

농경의 시초인 수메르 인들은 작물을 경작하기 위해 도구를 발견 하였다. 뿐만 아니라, 전차와 하프, 수레 바퀴를 만들었고, 맥주를 단지에 긴 빨대를 꽂아 마시는 장면이 연출되어있는 부조 작품을 볼 수있다. 장식품에서 보이는 푸른색의 돌은 "청금석"으로, 물을 뿌리면 더욱 더 선명한 파랑색이되는 준보 석과 같다. 청금석은 다른지역의 밀과 보리와 맞바꾸어졌는데 실크로드 이전에 '청금석로드'가 있었다는 사실도 기억해 둘 필요가있다. 청금석은 파키스탄 북부의 파라스샨 (지금의 아프가 니스탄)에 한정되어있다.
이들의 쇠퇴는 소금의 영향으로 인해 관개 농업의 변화로 밀수 확이 40 % 감소되어 기원전 2004 년 멸망되었다.
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사람의 얼굴. 날개 달린 황소

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법률 Hammurabi의 코드 stela 그가 상단 부분

이라크 메소포타 미아 지역의 역사 (그리스 문자로 알려졌다 : "강 사이의"). 그것은 세계 최초로 알려진 문명의 집에 있었고, 문화, 수메르어, 아카드어, 바빌로니아와 아시 리아의 문화, 누구의 영향에 의해 다음 인접 영역으로 확장 5000 기원전으로서 일찍. 이들은 문명의 초기 생산 쓰는 몇 가지 최초의 과학, 수학, 법률 그리고 세상의 철 학; 따라서는 일반적으로 쓰기엔, 문명의 "간수".

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태양신 사마시와 함무라비왕.
태양신에게 법전에 대한 영감을 받고있는 모습. 신성한 권력을 상징하는 홀.



 

사진 스티브 McCurry에 의해
4,000 년 된 지구 라트 우르에서 (성전 타워) 달이 Nanna 하나님의 영광. 하나님의 동상을 한번 성전의 맨 위에 서서, 옷을 씻어했고, 사제에 의해 먹이.

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피터 브뤼겔의 바벨탑







 

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Posted by @artnstory Art&Story

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  1. A 2018.09.09 23:41 Address Modify/Delete Reply

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